Calpain 3 is a modulator of the dysferlin protein complex in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT Muscular dystrophies comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of degenerative muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Two forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, 2A and 2B, are caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3) and dysferlin (DYSF), respectively. While CAPN3 may be involved in sarcomere remodeling, DYSF is proposed to play a role in membrane repair. The coexistence of CAPN3 and AHNAK, a protein involved in subsarcolemmal cytoarchitecture and membrane repair, in the dysferlin protein complex and the presence of proteolytic cleavage fragments of AHNAK in skeletal muscle led us to investigate whether AHNAK can act as substrate for CAPN3. We here demonstrate that AHNAK is cleaved by CAPN3 and show that AHNAK is lost in cells expressing active CAPN3. Conversely, AHNAK accumulates when calpain 3 is defective in skeletal muscle of calpainopathy patients. Moreover, we demonstrate that AHNAK fragments cleaved by CAPN3 have lost their affinity for dysferlin. Thus, our findings suggest interconnectivity between both diseases by revealing a novel physiological role for CAPN3 in regulating the dysferlin protein complex.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Antoine de Morree, Dec 16, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Dysferlin (DYSF) is involved in the membrane-repair process, in the intracellular vesicle system and in T-tubule development in skeletal muscle. It interacts with mitsugumin 53, annexins, caveolin-3, AHNAK, affixin, S100A10, calpain-3, tubulin and dihydropyridine receptor. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM) are muscular dystrophies associated with recessively inherited mutations in the DYSF gene. The diseases are characterized by weakness and muscle atrophy that progress slowly and symmetrically in the proximal muscles of the limb girdles. LGMD2B and MM, which are collectively termed "dysferlinopathy", both lead to abnormalities in vesicle traffic and membrane repair at the plasma membrane in muscle fibers. SJL/J (SJL) and A/J mice are naturally occurring animal models for dysferlinopathy. Since there has been no an approach to therapy for dysferlinopathy, the immediate development of a therapeutic method for this genetic disorder is desirable. The murine models are useful in verification experiments for new therapies and they are valuable tools for identifying factors that accelerate dystrophic changes in skeletal muscle. It could be possible that the genetic or immunological background in SJL or A/J mice could modify muscle damage in experiments involving these models, because SJL and A/J mice show differences in the progress and prevalent sites of skeletal muscle lesions as well as in the gene-expression profiles of their skeletal muscle. In this review, we provide up-to-date information on the function of dysferlin, the development of possible therapies for muscle dystrophies (including dysferlinopathy) and the detection of new therapeutic targets for dysferlinopathy by means of experiments using animal models for dysferlinopathy.Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 06/2012; 25(2):135-47. DOI:10.1293/tox.25.135 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dysferlin is a type II transmembrane protein implicated in surface membrane repair in muscle. Mutations in dysferlin lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, Miyoshi Myopathy and distal anterior compartment myopathy. Dysferlin's mode of action is not well understood and only a few protein binding partners have thus far been identified. Using affinity purification followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified alpha-tubulin as a novel binding partner for dysferlin. The association between dysferlin and alpha-tubulin, as well as between dysferlin and microtubules, was confirmed in vitro by glutathione S-transferase pulldown and microtubule binding assays. These interactions were confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy revealed that dysferlin and alpha-tubulin co-localized in the perinuclear region and in vesicular structures in myoblasts, and along thin longitudinal structures reminiscent of microtubules in myotubes. We mapped dysferlin's alpha-tubulin-binding region to its C2A and C2B domains. Modulation of calcium levels did not affect dysferlin binding to alpha-tubulin, suggesting that this interaction is calcium-independent. Our studies identified a new binding partner for dysferlin and suggest a role for microtubules in dysferlin trafficking to the sarcolemma.PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e10122. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010122 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration. We studied muscle regeneration in 22 patients with LGMD2A with calpain 3 deficiency, in five patients with LGMD2I, with a secondary reduction in calpain 3, and in five patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) with normal calpain 3 levels. Regeneration was assessed by using the developmental markers neonatal myosin heavy chain (nMHC), vimentin, MyoD and myogenin and counting internally nucleated fibers. We found that the recent regeneration as determined by the number of nMHC/vimentin-positive fibers was greatly diminished in severely affected LGMD2A patients compared to similarly affected patients with LGMD2I and BMD. Whorled fibers, a sign of aberrant regeneration, was highly elevated in patients with a complete lack of calpain 3 compared to patients with residual calpain 3. Regeneration is not affected by location of the mutation in the CAPN3 gene. Our findings suggest that calpain 3 is needed for the regenerative process probably during sarcomere remodeling as the complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe phenotypes.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 03/2012; 13:43. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-43 · 1.90 Impact Factor