P2Y12 receptor upregulation in activated microglia is a gateway of p38 signaling and neuropathic pain.
ABSTRACT Microglia in the spinal cord may play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. A metabotropic ATP receptor, P2Y(12), has been shown to be expressed in spinal microglia constitutively and be involved in chemotaxis. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) occurs in spinal microglia after nerve injury and may be related to the production of cytokines and other mediators, resulting in neuropathic pain. However, it remains unknown whether any type of P2Y receptor in microglia is involved in the activation of p38 MAPK and the pain behaviors after nerve injury. Using the partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model in the rat, we found that P2Y(12) mRNA and protein increased in the spinal cord and peaked at 3 d after PSNL. Double labeling studies revealed that cells expressing increased P2Y(12) mRNA and protein after nerve injury were exclusively microglia. Both pharmacological blockades by intrathecal administration of P2Y(12) antagonist and antisense knockdown of P2Y(12) expression suppressed the development of pain behaviors and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in spinal microglia after PSNL. The intrathecal infusion of the P2Y(12) agonist 2-(methythio) adenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt into naive rats mimicked the nerve injury-induced activation of p38 in microglia and elevated pain behaviors. These data suggest a new mechanism of neuropathic pain, in which the increased P2Y(12) works as a gateway of the following events in microglia after nerve injury. Activation of this receptor by released ATP or the hydrolyzed products activate p38 MAPK pathway and may play a crucial role in the generation of neuropathic pain.
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ABSTRACT: Reciprocal signalling between immunocompetent cells in the central nervous system (CNS) has emerged as a key phenomenon underpinning pathological and chronic pain mechanisms. Neuronal excitability can be powerfully enhanced both by classical neurotransmitters derived from neurons, and by immune mediators released from CNS-resident microglia and astrocytes, and from infiltrating cells such as T cells. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of the contribution of central immune mechanisms to pathological pain, and how the heterogeneous immune functions of different cells in the CNS could be harnessed to develop new therapeutics for pain control. Given the prevalence of chronic pain and the incomplete efficacy of current drugs - which focus on suppressing aberrant neuronal activity - new strategies to manipulate neuroimmune pain transmission hold considerable promise.Nature Reviews Immunology 02/2014; · 32.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microglia in the spinal cord is evidenced to play a crucial role in neuropathic pain. Spinal P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs), which are mainly expressed in microglia, have been investigated for their roles in neuropathic pain. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, is clinically applied to sedation and analgesia. Despite the proposed mechanisms underlying DEX-induced analgesia, the possible interactions between DEX and P2X4Rs at a molecular level have not been elucidated. We designated the spared nerve injury (SNI) to establish the neuropathic pain model. Mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) was measured to evaluate the sensitivity of neuropathic pain in rats. MWT was significantly decreased in SNI rats versus control rats. Expressions of spinal P2X4Rs, phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were upregulated in SNI rats. Immunofluorescence assay indicated higher densities of microglia and P2X4Rs, which appeared yellow in colour, suggesting they were co-labelled. Intraperitoneal injections of DEX 40μg/kg for 14 consecutive days markedly reversed the SNI-induced decline of MWT; the activation of microglia was markedly inhibited; in addition, the protein expressions of P2X4Rs, p-p38-MAPK and BDNF were significantly downregulated. Thus, DEX could attenuate the neuropathic pain in SNI rats, of which the mechanism might be related to the down-expressed P2X4Rs, p-p38 and BDNF in microglia of spinal dorsal horn.Brain research 04/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the CNS, neuroinflammation occurring during pathologies as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is the consequence of an intricate interplay orchestrated by various cell phenotypes. Among the molecular cues having a role in this process, extracellular nucleotides are responsible for intercellular communication and propagation of inflammatory stimuli. This occurs by binding to several receptor subtypes, defined P2X/P2Y, which are widespread in different tissues and simultaneously localized on multiple cells. For instance, the metabotropic P2Y12 subtype is found in the CNS on microglia, affecting activation and chemotaxis, on oligodendrocytes, possessing a hypothesized role in myelination, and on astrocytes. By comparative analysis, we have established here that P2Y12 receptor immunolabelled by antibodies against C-terminus or second intracellular loop, is, respectively, distributed and modulated under neuroinflammatory conditions on ramified microglia or myelinated fibers, in primary organotypic cerebellar cultures, tissue slices from rat striatum and cerebellum, spinal cord sections from symptomatic/end stage SOD1-G93A ALS mice, and finally autoptic cortical tissue from progressive MS donors. We suggest that modulation of P2Y12 expression might play a dual role as analytic marker of branched/surveillant microglia and demyelinating lesions, thus potentially acquiring a predictive value under neuroinflammatory conditions as those found in ALS and MS.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:975849. · 3.88 Impact Factor