P2Y12 receptor upregulation in activated microglia is a gateway of p38 signaling and neuropathic pain.
ABSTRACT Microglia in the spinal cord may play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. A metabotropic ATP receptor, P2Y(12), has been shown to be expressed in spinal microglia constitutively and be involved in chemotaxis. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) occurs in spinal microglia after nerve injury and may be related to the production of cytokines and other mediators, resulting in neuropathic pain. However, it remains unknown whether any type of P2Y receptor in microglia is involved in the activation of p38 MAPK and the pain behaviors after nerve injury. Using the partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model in the rat, we found that P2Y(12) mRNA and protein increased in the spinal cord and peaked at 3 d after PSNL. Double labeling studies revealed that cells expressing increased P2Y(12) mRNA and protein after nerve injury were exclusively microglia. Both pharmacological blockades by intrathecal administration of P2Y(12) antagonist and antisense knockdown of P2Y(12) expression suppressed the development of pain behaviors and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in spinal microglia after PSNL. The intrathecal infusion of the P2Y(12) agonist 2-(methythio) adenosine 5'-diphosphate trisodium salt into naive rats mimicked the nerve injury-induced activation of p38 in microglia and elevated pain behaviors. These data suggest a new mechanism of neuropathic pain, in which the increased P2Y(12) works as a gateway of the following events in microglia after nerve injury. Activation of this receptor by released ATP or the hydrolyzed products activate p38 MAPK pathway and may play a crucial role in the generation of neuropathic pain.
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ABSTRACT: It is now well established that glial cells not only provide mechanical and trophic support to neurons but can directly contribute to neurotransmission, for example, by release and uptake of neurotransmitters and by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. This has greatly changed our attitude towards acute and chronic disorders, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches targeting activated glial cells to indirectly modulate and/or restore neuronal functions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia communication that can be pharmacologically targeted is therefore a mandatory step toward the success of this new healing strategy. This holds true also in the field of pain transmission, where the key involvement of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in peripheral ganglia has been clearly demonstrated, and literally hundreds of signaling molecules have been identified. Here, we shall focus on one emerging signaling system involved in the cross talk between neurons and glial cells, the purinergic system, consisting of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their membrane receptors. Specifically, we shall summarize existing evidence of novel “druggable” glial purinergic targets, which could help in the development of innovative analgesic approaches to chronic pain states.BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study the role of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) were explored in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and in acute thermal nociception. In correlation with their activity to block the recombinant human P2Y12R, the majority of P2Y12R antagonists alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia dose-dependently, following intraplantar CFA injection, and after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. They also caused an increase in thermal nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test. Among the six P2Y12R antagonists evaluated in the pain studies, the selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist PSB-0739 was most potent upon intrathecal application. P2Y12R mRNA and IL-1β protein were time-dependently overexpressed in the rat hindpaw and lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar CFA injection. This was accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hindpaw. PSB-0739 (0.3 mg/kg i.t.) attenuated CFA-induced expression of cytokines in the hindpaw and of IL-1β in spinal cord. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist MLA occluded the effect of PSB-0739 (i.t.) on pain behavior and peripheral cytokine induction. Denervation of sympathetic nerves by 6-OHDA pretreatment did not affect the action of PSB-0739. PSB-0739, in an analgesic dose, did not influence motor coordination and platelet aggregation. Genetic deletion of the P2Y12R in mice reproduced the effect of P2Y12R antagonists on mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, on acute thermal nociception and on the induction of spinal IL-1β. Here we report the robust involvement of the P2Y12R in inflammatory pain. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of P2Y12R antagonism could be mediated by the inhibition of both central and peripheral cytokine production and involves α7-receptor mediated efferent pathways.Neurobiology of Disease 06/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the CNS, neuroinflammation occurring during pathologies as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is the consequence of an intricate interplay orchestrated by various cell phenotypes. Among the molecular cues having a role in this process, extracellular nucleotides are responsible for intercellular communication and propagation of inflammatory stimuli. This occurs by binding to several receptor subtypes, defined P2X/P2Y, which are widespread in different tissues and simultaneously localized on multiple cells. For instance, the metabotropic P2Y12 subtype is found in the CNS on microglia, affecting activation and chemotaxis, on oligodendrocytes, possessing a hypothesized role in myelination, and on astrocytes. By comparative analysis, we have established here that P2Y12 receptor immunolabelled by antibodies against C-terminus or second intracellular loop, is, respectively, distributed and modulated under neuroinflammatory conditions on ramified microglia or myelinated fibers, in primary organotypic cerebellar cultures, tissue slices from rat striatum and cerebellum, spinal cord sections from symptomatic/end stage SOD1-G93A ALS mice, and finally autoptic cortical tissue from progressive MS donors. We suggest that modulation of P2Y12 expression might play a dual role as analytic marker of branched/surveillant microglia and demyelinating lesions, thus potentially acquiring a predictive value under neuroinflammatory conditions as those found in ALS and MS.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:975849. · 2.42 Impact Factor