The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease
ABSTRACT Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE was the least accurate with 79% sensitivity at 90% specificity. Many of the sCJD patients had extremely elevated t-tau values but normal values of the AD-marker p-tau. Protein 14-3-3 was very sensitive (95%) although the specificity was relatively low (75%). A combination of elevated t-tau concentration with the presence of 14-3-3 protein in CSF gave the best test specificity of 96% at 84% sensitivity. We conclude that the combination of more than one CSF marker for neurodegeneration can improve the diagnostic test accuracy for sCJD against neurological controls including patients with other dementias.
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ABSTRACT: The microtubule-associated protein Tau is mainly expressed in neurons of the CNS and is crucial in axonal maintenance and axonal transport. The rationale for Tau as a biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases is that it is a major component of abnormal intraneuronal aggregates observed in numerous tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. The molecular diversity of Tau is very useful when analyzing it in the brain or in the peripheral fluids. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characterization of Tau aggregates in the brain allows the postmortem classification and differential diagnosis of tauopathies. As peripheral biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in the cerebrospinal fluid, Tau proteins are now validated for diagnosis and predictive purposes. For the future, the detailed characterization of Tau in the brain and in peripheral fluids will lead to novel promising biomarkers for differential diagnosis of dementia and monitoring of therapeutics.Biomarkers in Medicine 08/2008; 2(4):363-84. DOI:10.2217/175203220.127.116.113 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 14-3-3 protein test has been shown to support the clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) when associated with an adequate clinical context, and a high differential potential for the diagnosis of sporadic CJD has been attributed to other cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins such as tau protein, S100b and neuron specific enolase (NSE). So far there has been only limited information available about biochemical markers in genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (gTSE), although they represent 10-15% of human TSEs. In this study, we analyzed CSF of 174 patients with gTSEs for 14-3-3 (n = 166), tau protein (n = 78), S100b (n = 46) and NSE (n = 50). Levels of brain-derived proteins in CSF varied in different forms of gTSE. Biomarkers were found positive in the majority of gCJD (81%) and insert gTSE (69%), while they were negative in most cases of fatal familial insomnia (13%) and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (10%). Disease duration and codon 129 genotype influence the findings in a different way than in sporadic CJD.Journal of Neurology 06/2009; 256(10):1620-8. DOI:10.1007/s00415-009-5163-x · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. CSF levels of NFL, NFHp35, t-tau, and GFAP of 23 sCJD patients and 55 AD patients were analyzed and compared to non-demented controls. Median NFL, NFHp35, GFAP, and t-tau levels were significantly increased in sCJD patients and AD patients versus controls (p < 0.0001 in all). NFL, NFHp35, and t-tau levels were significantly increased in sCJD patients versus AD patients (p < 0.005), but GFAP concentrations did not differ between sCJD and AD. The results suggest that neuroaxonal damage, reflected by higher CSF levels of NFL, NFHp35, and t-tau, is more pronounced in the pathophysiology of sCJD than in AD. The comparable CSF GFAP concentrations suggest that astroglial damage or astrocytosis is equally pronounced in the pathophysiology of AD and sCJD. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether NFL and NFHp35 may be additional tools in the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementias.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2010; 21(2):569-76. DOI:10.3233/JAD-2010-090649 · 4.15 Impact Factor