Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the female genital organs and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Are WT1, CA125, and GCDFP-15 useful in differential diagnosis? Hum Pathol

Department of Pathology and Clinical Laboratories, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi 460-0001, Japan.
Human Pathlogy (Impact Factor: 2.77). 06/2008; 39(5):666-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2007.09.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the female genital organs and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast have close histologic similarities. Thus, when these cancers occur synchronously or metachronously in the same patient, it is difficult to determine the primary site. We examined 23 serous papillary adenocarcinomas (16 ovarian, 5 endometrial, and 2 peritoneal) and 37 invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the breast (12 pure and 25 mixed types) on immunohistochemical expression of Wilm's tumor antigen-1 (WT1), CA125, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), which have been reported to be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary. The positive rates of WT1, CA125, and GCDFP-15 in serous papillary adenocarcinomas were 78%, 78%, and 0%, respectively, and the corresponding rates in invasive micropapillary carcinomas were 3%, 40%, and 38%. The CA125-positive rate of invasive micropapillary carcinoma was higher than the rate reported for other types of breast carcinomas. We consider CA125 to be not always useful in the differential diagnosis of serous papillary adenocarcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Although the positive rate of WT1 was significantly higher in serous papillary adenocarcinoma than in invasive micropapillary carcinoma, WT1 expression in endometrial serous papillary adenocarcinoma was infrequent (20%). WT1 and GCDFP-15 could be useful markers for the differential diagnosis of ovarian and peritoneal serous papillary adenocarcinoma versus breast invasive micropapillary adenocarcinoma. However, the availability of GCDFP-15 is limited because of the low positive rate of GCDFP-15 in invasive micropapillary carcinomas.

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    • "In our current study, we sought to deliver TR3 selectively to the cancer cells employing a native, high-affinity ligand/receptor interaction between mesothelin and MUC16, also known as CA125 [13]. MUC16 is an established biomarker in ovarian cancer that is also overexpressed in other malignancies such as pancreatic [14,15] and breast cancers [16]. We thus generated a mesothelin-TR3 fusion protein, designated Meso-TR3, and performed biochemical and functional characterization experiments in vitro and in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: The targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics represents an ongoing challenge in the field of drug development. TRAIL is a promising cancer drug but its activity profile could benefit from a cancer-selective delivery mechanism, which would reduce potential side effects and increase treatment efficiencies. We recently developed the novel TRAIL-based drug platform TR3, a genetically fused trimer with the capacity for further molecular modifications such as the addition of tumor-directed targeting moieties. MUC16 (CA125) is a well characterized biomarker in several human malignancies including ovarian, pancreatic and breast cancer. Mesothelin is known to interact with MUC16 with high affinity. In order to deliver TR3 selectively to MUC16-expressing cancers, we investigated the possibility of targeted TR3 delivery employing the high affinity mesothelin/MUC16 ligand/receptor interaction. Using genetic engineering, we designed the novel cancer drug Meso-TR3, a fusion protein between native mesothelin and TR3. The recombinant proteins were produced with mammalian HEK293T cells. Meso-TR3 was characterized for binding selectivity and killing efficacy against MUC16-positive cancer cells and controls that lack MUC16 expression. Drug efficacy experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo employing an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. Similar to soluble mesothelin itself, the strong MUC16 binding property was retained in the Meso-TR3 fusion protein. The high affinity ligand/receptor interaction was associated with a selective accumulation of the cancer drug on MUC16-expressing cancer targets and directly correlated with increased killing activity in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. The relevance of the mesothelin/MUC16 interaction for attaching Meso-TR3 to the cancer cells was verified by competitive blocking experiments using soluble mesothelin. Mechanistic studies using soluble DR5-Fc and caspase blocking assays confirmed engagement of the extrinsic death receptor pathway. Compared to non-targeted TR3, Meso-TR3 displayed a much reduced killing potency on cells that lack MUC16. Soluble Meso-TR3 targets the cancer biomarker MUC16 in vitro and in vivo. Following attachment to the tumor via surface bound MUC16, Meso-TR3 acquires full activation with superior killing profiles compared to non-targeted TR3, while its bioactivity is substantially reduced on cells that lack the tumor marker. This prodrug phenomenon represents a highly desirable property because it has the potential to enhance cancer killing with fewer side-effects than non-targeted TRAIL-based therapeutics. Thus, further exploration of this novel fusion protein is warranted as a possible therapeutic for patients with MUC16-positive malignancies.
    BMC Cancer 01/2014; 14(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-35 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "IMPC has been described as a histological indicator for lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis, resulting in poor prognosis [2]. After initially being reported as a histological variant of breast cancer [1], IPMC of the urinary bladder [3], ovary [4], colon [5], and ampulla of Vater [6] was also reported. However, reports of IPMC of the stomach have been limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast, urinary bladder, ovary, and colon has been reported. However, few reports have described IMPC of the stomach. In addition, IMPC has been described as a histological indicator for lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis, resulting in poor prognosis. We report a case of 5-year survival after surgery for IPMC of the stomach. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of upper abdominal pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a tumor at the antrum of the stomach. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. Microscopic examination of the specimen revealed that the tumor consisted of an invasive micropapillary component. Carcinoma cell clusters were floating in the clear spaces. The patient recovered uneventfully and remains alive without recurrence 5 years after surgery.
    03/2013; 2013:560712. DOI:10.1155/2013/560712
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    • "IMPC has been reported in various organs, including the breast [1], lung [2], parotid gland [3], ovary [5], pancreas [6], gallbladder [7], and stomach [8]; however, reports of colorectal micropapillary carcinoma, especially in early stages, are rare. "
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    ABSTRACT: Micropapillary carcinoma was originally reported to be an aggressive variant of breast carcinoma, and it is associated with frequent lymphovascular invasion and a dismal clinical outcome. It has subsequently been found in other organs; however, at present, only a limited number of cases of colorectal micropapillary carcinoma have been reported. We present a case of early colon cancer with extensive nodal metastases in a Japanese patient. An 82-year-old man was found by colonoscopy to have a 20-mm pedunculated polyp in his sigmoid colon. Endoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon tumor was performed, and pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma component and a micropapillary component. Despite the tumor being confined within the submucosa, massive lymphatic invasion was noted. Thereafter, the patient underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with lymph node dissection, and multiple lymph node metastases were observed. Our case suggests that when a micropapillary component is identified in a pre-operative biopsy specimen, even for early colorectal cancer, surgical resection with adequate lymph node dissection would be required because of the high potential for nodal metastases.
    Case Reports in Oncology 09/2012; 5(3):608-15. DOI:10.1159/000345566
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