Analysis of gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection and regulation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase.
ABSTRACT Airway epithelial cells, which are the initial site of influenza virus (IV) infection, participate in the inflammatory process through the expression of various genes. In this process, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be associated with the expression of many genes, but its precise role remains unknown.
A comprehensive analysis was performed of gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells upon IV infection, using an Affymetrix gene chip containing 12 000 genes. Regulation of gene expression by MAPK was also analysed.
A total of 5998 genes were detected. Upon IV infection, 165 genes were upregulated and 49 of these were interferon-stimulated genes. The functions of 129 genes, including 14 apoptosis-related genes and 6 antiviral genes, were well characterized; however, those of 36 genes were unknown. The expression of 29 genes was inhibited either by SB 203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, or by CEP-11004, a specific inhibitor of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, and the percentage inhibition by SB 203580 correlated with that by CEP-11004, suggesting that p38 and JNK participate in a common downstream pathway involved in the regulation of gene expression. p38 MAPK- or JNK-dependent genes were functionally classified into diverse categories.
Although further studies are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of gene expression and the role of MAPK in gene expression, the present results are important in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of bronchial epithelial cells to IV infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Yan A Ivanenkov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This 'state-of-the-art' review specifically focuses on alternative signalling pathways deeply involved in acute and chronic inflammatory responses initiated by various pathological stimuli. The accumulated scientific knowledge has already revealed key biological targets, such as COX-2, and related pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines, interleukins [ILs], tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, migration inhibition factor [MIF], interferon [IFN]-gamma and matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]) implicated in uncontrolled, destructive inflammatory reaction. A number of physiologically active agents are currently approved for market or are under active investigation in different clinical trials. However, recent findings have exposed the fatal adverse effects directly associated with drug therapy based on COX-2 inhibition. Given these possible harmful outcomes, a range of novel therapeutically relevant biological targets that include nuclear transcription factor (NF-kappaB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Janus protein tyrosine kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathways has received growing attention. Here we discuss recent progress in the identification and development of novel, clinically approved or evaluated small-molecule regulators of these signalling cascades as promising anti-inflammatory drugs.Drugs in R & D 02/2008; 9(6):397-434. · 1.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Influenza virus infections lead to a burst of type I interferon (IFN) in the human respiratory tract, which most probably accounts for a rapid control of the virus. Although in mice, IFN-induced Mx1 factor mediates a major part of this response, the situation is less clear in humans. Interestingly, a recently identified IFN-induced cellular protein, tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2, or HM1.24), exerts potent antiviral activity against a broad range of retroviruses, as well as several other enveloped viruses, by impeding the release of newly generated viral particles from the cell surface. Here we show that influenza virus belongs to the targets of this potent antiviral factor. Ectopic expression of tetherin strongly inhibited fully replicative influenza virus. In addition, depleting endogenous tetherin increased viral production of influenza virions, both in cells constitutively expressing tetherin and upon its induction by IFN. We further demonstrate, by biochemical and morphological means, that tetherin exerts its antiviral action by tethering newly budded viral particles, a mechanism similar to the one that operates against HIV-1. In addition, we determined that the magnitude of tetherin antiviral activity is comparable with or higher than the one of several previously identified anti-influenza cellular factors, such as MxA, ADAR1, ISG15, and viperin. Finally, we demonstrate that influenza virus reduces the impact of tetherin-mediated restriction on its replication by several mechanisms. First, the influenza virus NS1 protein impedes IFN-mediated tetherin induction. Second, influenza infection leads to a decrease of tetherin steady state levels, and the neuraminidase surface protein partly counteracts its activity. Overall, our study helps to delineate the intricate molecular battle taking place between influenza virus and its host cells.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(26):22015-29. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD7 expression is found on ~30% of acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML). The leukemic progenitor cell line KG1a (CD7+) constitutively expresses GM-CSF while the parental KG1 (CD7-) cell line does not. This study focuses on the molecular basis of CD7 mediated GM-CSF regulation. KG1a cells were treated with recombinant SECTM1-Fc protein, the PI3K kinase inhibitors wortmannin, LY292004, or PI4K activator spermine. Stable KG1-CD7+, KG1a-shCD7, KG1a-shETS1 as well as KG1a-GFP, KG1a-PKCβII-GFP cell lines were generated and the levels of CD7, GM-CSF and ETS-1 mRNA and protein were compared by real-time-PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry and ELISA. SECTM1 is expressed in Human Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells (HBMEC) and its expression can be upregulated by both IFN-γ. KG1a cells demonstrated high expression levels of CD7 and ETS-1 allowing a constitutative signaling through the PI3K/Atk pathway to promote GM-CSF expression, while KG1 cells with low expression of CD7 and ETS-1 showed low GM-CSF expression. On KG1a cells GM-CSF expression could be negatively regulated by PI3K Inhibitors or by recombinant SECTM1-Fc. Overexpression of CD7 in KG1 cells was insufficient to promote GM-CSF expression, while silencing of CD7 or ETS-1 resulted in reduced GM-CSF expression levels. Differentiation capable KG1a cells overexpressing PKCβII illustrated complete loss of CD7, but maintained normal levels of both ETS-1 and GM-CSF expression. These findings add an additional layer to the previously described autocrine/paracrine signaling between leukemic progenitor cells and the bone marrow microenviroment and highlight a role for SECTM1 in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor