Analysis of gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection and regulation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase.
ABSTRACT Airway epithelial cells, which are the initial site of influenza virus (IV) infection, participate in the inflammatory process through the expression of various genes. In this process, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be associated with the expression of many genes, but its precise role remains unknown.
A comprehensive analysis was performed of gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells upon IV infection, using an Affymetrix gene chip containing 12 000 genes. Regulation of gene expression by MAPK was also analysed.
A total of 5998 genes were detected. Upon IV infection, 165 genes were upregulated and 49 of these were interferon-stimulated genes. The functions of 129 genes, including 14 apoptosis-related genes and 6 antiviral genes, were well characterized; however, those of 36 genes were unknown. The expression of 29 genes was inhibited either by SB 203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, or by CEP-11004, a specific inhibitor of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, and the percentage inhibition by SB 203580 correlated with that by CEP-11004, suggesting that p38 and JNK participate in a common downstream pathway involved in the regulation of gene expression. p38 MAPK- or JNK-dependent genes were functionally classified into diverse categories.
Although further studies are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of gene expression and the role of MAPK in gene expression, the present results are important in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of bronchial epithelial cells to IV infection.
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ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) induce severe inflammation in poultry and men. One characteristic of HPAIV infections is the induction of a cytokine burst that strongly contributes to viral pathogenicity. This cell-intrinsic hypercytokinemia seems to involve hyperinduction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here we investigate the role of p38 MAPK signaling in the antiviral response against HPAIV in mice as well as in human endothelial cells, the latter being a primary source of cytokines during systemic infections. Global gene expression profiling of HPAIV-infected endothelial cells in the presence of the p38-specific inhibitor SB 202190 revealed that inhibition of p38 MAPK leads to reduced expression of IFNbeta and other cytokines after H5N1 and H7N7 infection. More than 90% of all virus-induced genes were either partially or fully dependent on p38 signaling. Moreover, promoter analysis confirmed a direct impact of p38 on the IFNbeta promoter activity. Furthermore, upon treatment with IFN or conditioned media from HPAIV-infected cells, p38 controls interferon-stimulated gene expression by coregulating STAT1 by phosphorylation at serine 727. In vivo inhibition of p38 MAPK greatly diminishes virus induced cytokine expression concomitant with reduced viral titers, thereby protecting mice from lethal infection. These observations show, that p38 MAPK acts on two levels of the antiviral IFN response: Initially the kinase regulates IFN induction and, at a later stage, p38 controls IFN signaling and thereby expression of IFN-stimulated genes. Thus, inhibition of MAP kinase p38 may be an antiviral strategy that protects mice from lethal influenza by suppressing excessive cytokine expression.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating lung disease characterized by airflow limitation and chronic inflammation in the lungs. The mainstay of drug therapy for COPD is represented by long-acting bronchodilators, an important aspect of Novartis' development program. Novel once-daily dosing bronchodilators, such as the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) glycopyrronium and the LAMA/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combination QVA149, have been shown to provide significant benefits to patients with COPD in terms of improvement in lung function, exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, symptoms and reduction in the rate of exacerbations. Despite the benefits provided by these new treatment options, prevention of disease progression and control of exacerbations in certain patent phenotypes remain key challenges in the treatment of COPD. In order to address these needs and gain new insights into the complexity of COPD, Novartis is, in addition to bronchodilator-only therapies, developing LABA/inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) combinations to target inflammation, such as QMF149, as well as non-steroid based anti-inflammatory agents against key novel targets. These commitments are central to the Novartis' final goal of improving the standard of care in respiratory medicine and offering a better quality of life to patients with COPD.Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 06/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD7 expression is found on ~30% of acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML). The leukemic progenitor cell line KG1a (CD7+) constitutively expresses GM-CSF while the parental KG1 (CD7-) cell line does not. This study focuses on the molecular basis of CD7 mediated GM-CSF regulation. KG1a cells were treated with recombinant SECTM1-Fc protein, the PI3K kinase inhibitors wortmannin, LY292004, or PI4K activator spermine. Stable KG1-CD7+, KG1a-shCD7, KG1a-shETS1 as well as KG1a-GFP, KG1a-PKCβII-GFP cell lines were generated and the levels of CD7, GM-CSF and ETS-1 mRNA and protein were compared by real-time-PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry and ELISA. SECTM1 is expressed in Human Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells (HBMEC) and its expression can be upregulated by both IFN-γ. KG1a cells demonstrated high expression levels of CD7 and ETS-1 allowing a constitutative signaling through the PI3K/Atk pathway to promote GM-CSF expression, while KG1 cells with low expression of CD7 and ETS-1 showed low GM-CSF expression. On KG1a cells GM-CSF expression could be negatively regulated by PI3K Inhibitors or by recombinant SECTM1-Fc. Overexpression of CD7 in KG1 cells was insufficient to promote GM-CSF expression, while silencing of CD7 or ETS-1 resulted in reduced GM-CSF expression levels. Differentiation capable KG1a cells overexpressing PKCβII illustrated complete loss of CD7, but maintained normal levels of both ETS-1 and GM-CSF expression. These findings add an additional layer to the previously described autocrine/paracrine signaling between leukemic progenitor cells and the bone marrow microenviroment and highlight a role for SECTM1 in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor