The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas

Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, 4352 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4352, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 04/2008; 319(5869):1497-502. DOI: 10.1126/science.1153569
Source: PubMed


When did humans colonize the Americas? From where did they come and what routes did they take? These questions have gripped
scientists for decades, but until recently answers have proven difficult to find. Current genetic evidence implies dispersal
from a single Siberian population toward the Bering Land Bridge no earlier than about 30,000 years ago (and possibly after
22,000 years ago), then migration from Beringia to the Americas sometime after 16,500 years ago. The archaeological records
of Siberia and Beringia generally support these findings, as do archaeological sites in North and South America dating to
as early as 15,000 years ago. If this is the time of colonization, geological data from western Canada suggest that humans
dispersed along the recently deglaciated Pacific coastline.

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Available from: Ted Goebel, Mar 31, 2014
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    • "The biological variation of Pleistocene–Holocene American populations has been the focus of intense research for more than 150 years (e.g., Chatters et al. 2014; González-José et al. 2008; Hrdlička 1912; Hubbe et al. 2010; Lahr 1996; Lund 1842; Neves and Pucciarelli 1991; Perego et al. 2009; Stringer 1992; Turner 1983). Most of these investigations comprise a wide variety of studies concerning the peopling of the Americas, which have been the subject of continued debates (Goebel et al. 2008; Powell and Neves 1999). The large interest raised by this issue is partially due to the fact that South America was the last continent to be colonized by modern humans (after the Late Glacial Maximum) in association with an apparently fast spread across the region and with relatively high levels of morphological, cultural, and linguistic important because, despite the large morphological variation of the area (Pucciarelli et al. 2010; Sardi et al. 2005), the Southern Cone of South America was one of the latest regions to be inhabited by human populations. "

    06/2015; 1(3):251-265. DOI:10.1179/2055556315Z.00000000031
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    • "32,000-14,000 14 C yr BP (Bar-Yosef and Kuhn 1999; Collins 2005; Gilead and Bar-Yosef 1993; Smith 1966). Likely humans that arrived in America by any of the currently suggested routes (e.g., Erlandson 2002; Fladmark 1979; Goebel et al. 2008; Miotti 2006; Stanford and Bradley 2012) knew this technology. Although in the oldest sites of South America like Monte Verde, Arroyo Seco, or Piedra Museo, among others, this technology is not recorded. "
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    • "As originally proposed by Martin (1967, 1973), reviewed also by Haynes (2009), Clovis hunters spread into the New World and hunted megafauna to unsustainable numbers. The chronology of Clovis is debated; some suggest a very narrow time span between 13,000 and 12,600 cal yr BP (Rasmussen et al., 2014, see Waters and Stafford, 2007 and Goebel et al., 2008; but see Haynes et al., 2007 for critique), while Meltzer (2004) argued that Clovis culture began 450 years earlier than this narrow span. More recently, strict linkage of overkill to Clovis is challenged by evidence of other cultures, including Western Stemmed Point, overlapping with or pre-dating Clovis (Beck and Jones, 2010; Jenkins et al., 2012). "
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