Plasma levels of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherol and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan: A nested case-control study

Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku 104-0045, Tokyo, Japan.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.33). 05/2008; 29(5):1042-8. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgn072
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fruits and vegetables have been suggested to confer protection against diseases such as cancer through the effects of antioxidants, often represented by carotenoids. We investigated the impact of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherol on gastric cancer development in a large nested case-control study among Japanese with known Helicobacter pylori infection status. A total of 36 745 subjects aged 40-69 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study who responded to the baseline questionnaire and provided blood samples in 1990-1995 were followed until 2004. Plasma levels of carotenoids in 511 gastric cancer cases and 511 matched controls were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Plasma level of beta-carotene was inversely associated with the risk of gastric cancer (compared with the lowest quartile: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.31-0.75; OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.31-0.75 and OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.28-0.75, for quartile 2, 3 and 4, respectively, P(trend) < 0.01). Inverse associations were evident in men for alpha-carotene (P(trend) = 0.04) and beta-carotene (P(trend) < 0.01), but not in women, who had relatively higher plasma levels compared with men. We found no statistically significant association between plasma levels of lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, retinol, alpha- or gamma-tocopherol and gastric cancer risk. Our findings suggest that those who have very low plasma levels of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene are at a higher risk of gastric cancer.

Download full-text


Available from: Weimin Ye, Dec 23, 2014
11 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to update the findings of relative risk associated with cigarette smoking for lung cancer by histologic type in Japan, the data from a population-based cohort study of 91,738 men and women were analyzed. During 1990-1999, 422 lung cancer incident cases were identified. The relative risk for all incident cases associated with current smokers versus non-smokers was 4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-6.8] and 4.2 (95% CI: 2.4-7.2), for men and women, respectively. When divided by histologic type, relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma was 12.7 (95% CI: 4.7-34.7) and 17.5 (95% CI: 4.9-62.1), while for adenocarcinoma it was 2.8 (95% CI: 1.6-4.9) and 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8-5.0) for men and women, respectively. We confirmed that the lung cancer risk in men rose with increasing cigarette smoking, especially the duration of smoking among current smokers and decreased after the cessation of smoking among former smokers. Unlike the US or European countries, the relative risk did not increase in this updated study, compared with previous studies in 1960s to 1990s in Japan either for all incident cases or for specific histologic types and the magnitude of relative risks was substantially lower than that observed in the US or European countries, especially for adenocarcinoma.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2002; 99(2):245-51. DOI:10.1002/ijc.10308 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although accumulating evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric carcinogenesis, the magnitude of the risk remains uncertain. Aim: We aimed to estimate the magnitude of the risk of gastric cancer associated with H. pylori infection by a large case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Possible effect modification by CagA status, and serum pepsinogen status, as a marker of atrophic gastritis, was also considered to see its effect on developing gastric cancer. Subjects and Subjects (n = 123,576) were followed up from 1990 to 2004; 511 gastric cancer cases matched to 511 controls were used in the analysis. Plasma immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori, CagA, and pepsinogen I and II were measured. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of gastric cancer associated with H. pylori infection was 5.1 (3.2-8.0). Assuming all CagA-positive subjects are true H. pylori positives doubled this risk. Atrophic gastritis was also associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer and the risk increased further with pepsinogen levels. Subjects with pepsinogen levels indicative of severe atrophic gastritis may need careful examination regularly regardless of H. pylori infection. Those who have other pepsinogen levels but who are H. pylori seropositive are likely to benefit from H. pylori eradication therapy. Considering both the cost and the potential for misclassification that may occur using multiple serologic tests, caution is needed in interpreting or extrapolating these findings into a screening strategy.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 08/2006; 15(7):1341-7. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0901 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between pretrial serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and the subsequent risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia or non-cardia adenocarcinoma in subjects selected from a randomized nutritional intervention trial in Linxian, China, a region with epidemic rates of esophageal and gastric cardia cancer. We used a stratified case-cohort design to select cohort members for inclusion in this study. In all we measured serum concentrations of the above vitamins in 590 esophageal, 395 gastric cardia, and 87 gastric non-cardia case subjects as well as in 1053 control subjects. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median values in our cohort were low for serum retinol (33.6 microg/dl), beta-carotene (4.3 microg/dl), and beta-cryptoxanthin (3.5 microg/dl), but were high for lutein/zeaxanthin (40.0 microg/dl). Gastric cardia cancer incidence fell 10% for each quartile increase in serum retinol (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99). For esophageal cancer, an inverse association with retinol levels was found only in male non-smokers (RR = 0.79 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). For gastric non-cardia cancer, an inverse association was limited to subjects 50 years old or younger (RR = 0.58 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.31-0.96). For beta-cryptoxanthin there was a borderline significant protective association for gastric non-cardia cancer (RR = 0.88 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.76-1.0). In contrast, we found the incidence of gastric non-cardia cancer increased (RR = 1.2 per quartile, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) with increasing concentration of serum lutein/zeaxanthin. In this population, we found that low retinol and high lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations increased the risks of gastric cardia and gastric non-cardia cancer respectively. We found that there were no strong associations between any of the other analytes and any of the cancer sites.
    Cancer Causes and Control 10/2003; 14(7):645-55. · 2.74 Impact Factor
Show more