Assessment of medication management ability in middle-aged and older adults with bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT Medication nonadherence is a key clinical concern in bipolar disorder (BD) across the life span. Cognitive deficits in older adults with BD may hinder medication management ability, which, in turn, may lead to nonadherence. Using an innovative performance-based measure of medication management ability, the Medication Management Ability Assessment (MMAA), we compared performance of 29 middle-aged older community-dwelling outpatients with BD who were clinically stable (mean age, 61 years; SD, 11 years; range, 45-86 years) with those of 59 normal control subjects (NCs) and 219 outpatients with schizophrenia. The MMAA is a role-play task that simulates a medication regimen likely to be encountered by older adults. Within the BD group, we examined the relationships of MMAA scores to demographic, psychiatric symptoms severity, and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores. The BD group made 2.8 times the errors on the MMAA than NCs (BD group, 6.2; SD, 5.5 vs NCs, 2.2; SD, 2.5) and did not significantly differ from the Schizophrenia group in errors on the MMAA. Errors in the BD group were more likely to be taking in too few medications as taking in too many. Within the BD group, a significant correlation was seen between MMAA scores and the DRS Total score, but not with age, education, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, number of psychiatric medications, or medical conditions. Among DRS subscales, the Memory Subscale correlated most strongly with MMAA errors. This small cross-sectional study suggests that deficits in medication management ability may be present in later-life BD. Neurocognitive deficits may be important in understanding problems with unintentional nonadherence.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic illness characterized by significant neurocognitive impairment and functional deficits. Functional status is typically assessed with self-report or observer ratings restricted by poor participant insight and subjective judgment, while application of performance-based measures has been limited. We assessed functional ability in manic, depressed, and euthymic BD individuals using the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2), which simulates real-world tasks such as medication management. UPSA-2 was administered to 17 manic or hypomanic BD, 14 depressed BD, 23 euthymic BD, and 28 healthy comparison (HC) participants matched for age, education, and IQ. Psychopathology was quantified with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); executive functioning was assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). All BD groups exhibited functional ability deficits on the UPSA-2 and impaired performance on the WCST compared to HC. UPSA-2 scores were lower in manic/hypomanic subjects relative to other BD participants and mania symptoms correlated with functional impairment. Poor WCST performance was also associated with worse UPSA-2 function. In summary, BD functional deficits occur across different phases of the disorder and may be impacted by symptom severity and associated with executive dysfunction.Psychiatry research. 05/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Background Information about differences between younger and older patients with bipolar disorder and between older patients with early and late age of onset of illness during long-term treatment is scarce.Objectives This study aimed to investigate the differences in treatment and treatment outcome between older and younger manic bipolar patients and between early-onset bipolar (EOB) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) older patients.Method The European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication study was a 2-year prospective, observational study in 3459 bipolar patients on the treatment and outcome of patients with an acute manic or mixed episode. Patients were assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-baseline. We calculated the number of patients with a remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence and the mean time to achieve this.ResultsOlder patients did not differ from younger bipolar patients in achieving remission and recovery or suffering a relapse and in the time to achieve this. However, more older patients recurred and in shorter time. Older patients used less atypical antipsychotics and more antidepressants and other concomitant psychiatric medication. Older EOB and LOB patients did not differ in treatment, but more older LOB patients tended to recover than older EOB patients.Conclusion Older bipolar manic patients did not differ from younger bipolar patients in short-term treatment outcome (remission and recovery), but in the long term, this may be more difficult to maintain. Distinguishing age groups in bipolar study populations may be useful when considering treatment and treatment outcome and warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 05/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience cognitive impairments and disability in everyday activities. In other neuropsychiatric disorders, impairments in cognition and functional capacity (i.e., the ability to perform everyday tasks) are associated with impairments in real-world functioning, independent of symptom severity. To date, no studies of functional capacity have been conducted in PTSD. Seventy-three women with moderate to severe PTSD underwent assessment with measures of cognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery: MCCB), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief: UPSA-B), PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and PTSD Symptom Scale–Self-report (PSS-SR)), and depression (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale). Patients also reported their subjective level of disability (Sheehan Disability Scale). Over-reporting of symptom severity was assessed using six validity items embedded within the PSS-SR. Results indicated that on average PTSD patients manifested mild impairments on the functional capacity measure, performing about 1/3 standard deviation below healthy norms, and similar performance on the MCCB. Both clinician-rated and self-rated PTSD symptom severity correlated with self-reported disability but not with functional capacity. Self-reported disability did not correlate with functional capacity or cognition. Greater self-reported disability, depression, and PTSD symptoms all correlated with higher scores on the PSS-SR validity scale. The divergence between objective and subjective measures of disability suggests that individuals’ distress, as indexed by symptom validity measures, may be impacting self-reports of disability. Future studies of disability should incorporate objective measures in order to obtain a broad perspective on functioning.Journal of Psychiatric Research 10/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor