Medication nonadherence is a key clinical concern in bipolar disorder (BD) across the life span. Cognitive deficits in older adults with BD may hinder medication management ability, which, in turn, may lead to nonadherence. Using an innovative performance-based measure of medication management ability, the Medication Management Ability Assessment (MMAA), we compared performance of 29 middle-aged older community-dwelling outpatients with BD who were clinically stable (mean age, 61 years; SD, 11 years; range, 45-86 years) with those of 59 normal control subjects (NCs) and 219 outpatients with schizophrenia. The MMAA is a role-play task that simulates a medication regimen likely to be encountered by older adults. Within the BD group, we examined the relationships of MMAA scores to demographic, psychiatric symptoms severity, and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores. The BD group made 2.8 times the errors on the MMAA than NCs (BD group, 6.2; SD, 5.5 vs NCs, 2.2; SD, 2.5) and did not significantly differ from the Schizophrenia group in errors on the MMAA. Errors in the BD group were more likely to be taking in too few medications as taking in too many. Within the BD group, a significant correlation was seen between MMAA scores and the DRS Total score, but not with age, education, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, number of psychiatric medications, or medical conditions. Among DRS subscales, the Memory Subscale correlated most strongly with MMAA errors. This small cross-sectional study suggests that deficits in medication management ability may be present in later-life BD. Neurocognitive deficits may be important in understanding problems with unintentional nonadherence.
"Although cognitive impairments as measured by the RBANS were more pronounced in the patients with mental illnesses, their ability to manage a typical medication regimen as assessed by a performance-based measure of medication management capacity, the MMAA, did not differ from those without psychiatric disorders. In previous studies, individuals with serious mental illnesses have generally performed worse on the MMAA than control patients (Patterson et al., 2002; Depp et al., 2008) with impaired cognition being associated with poorer performance on the task (Patterson et al., 2002; Jeste et al., 2003; Depp et al., 2008; Heinrichs et al., 2008). To our knowledge, this is the first study to administer the MMAA to patients with and without mental illnesses who also have Type 2 diabetes, which is known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction (Dickinson et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inadequate self-management of chronic medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes may play a role in the poor health status of individuals with serious mental illnesses. We compared adherence to hypoglycemic medications and blood glucose control between 44 diabetes patients with a serious mental illness and 30 patients without a psychiatric illness. The two groups did not differ in their ability to manage a complex medication regimen as assessed by a performance-based measure of medication management capacity. However, significantly fewer patients with a mental illness self-reported nonadherence to their hypoglycemic regimens compared to those without a mental illness. Although individuals with mental illnesses also had better control of blood glucose, this metabolic parameter was not correlated with adherence to hypoglycemic medications in either patient group. The experience of managing a chronic mental illness may confer advantages to individuals with serious mental illnesses in the self-care of co-occurring medical conditions like Type 2 diabetes.
Psychiatry Research 04/2011; 188(1):109-14. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.03.013 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older people are commonly prescribed complex multi-drug regimens while also experiencing declines in the cognitive and physical abilities required for medication management, leading to increased risk of medication errors and need for assisted living. The purpose of this study was to review published instruments designed to assess patients' capacity to self-administer medications.
Searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Google, and reference lists of identified publications were conducted to identify English-language articles describing development and validation of instruments designed to assess patients' capacity to self-administer medications. Methodological quality of validation studies was rated independently against published criteria by two reviewers and reliability and validity data were reviewed.
Thirty-two instruments were identified, of which 14 met pre-defined inclusion criteria. Instruments fell into two categories: those that used patients' own medications as the basis for assessment and those that used a simulated medication regimen. The quality of validation studies was generally low to moderate and few instruments were subjected to reliability testing. Most instruments had some evidence of construct validity, through associations with tests of cognitive function, health literacy, activities of daily living or measures of medication management or adherence. Only one instrument had sensitivity and specificity data with respect to prediction of medication-related outcomes such as adherence to therapy. Only three instruments had validity data from more than one independent research group.
A number of performance-based instruments exist to assess patients' capacity to manage their own medications. These may be useful for identifying physical and cognitive barriers to successful medication management, but further studies are needed to determine whether they are able to accurately and reliably predict medication outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether the number of daily administrations of individual drugs, as a measure of regimen complexity, contributes to the profile of an elderly patient who adheres poorly to the prescribed therapy.
Six hundred ninety patients over 64 years who were consecutively admitted to 11 acute medical care and three long term/rehabilitation wards in Italy.
Self-reported adherence to drugs taken at home before admission was measured by a single question assessment for each listed drug supplemented with a latter question about the circumstances of the missed administration. For cognitively impaired patients the question was put to patients' relatives or caregivers.
A structured multidimensional assessment was performed to identify nonadherence and its potential correlates. Correlates of nonadherence were identified by multivariable logistic regression.
We recorded 44 cases (6.4%) of nonadherence to at least one drug. Being assisted by foreign caregivers (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.02-4.63) and the use of at least one multiple daily dosing drug (OR 2.99; 95% CI 1.24-7.17) were significant independent correlates of medication nonadherence, while age, selected indexes of frailty and the cumulative number of prescribed drugs were not.
Regimen complexity and type of assistance are independent correlates of medication nonadherence.
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