Latent Hypoparathyroidism in an Osteoporotic Patient with Multiple Endocrinopathies and Secondary Hemochromatosis due to Multiple Blood Transfusions, Unmasked by Alendronate and Glucocorticoid at Adrenal Crisis
A 30-year-old normocalcemic man with hypopituitarism, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, and secondary hemochromatosis due to multiple blood transfusions was admitted because of adrenal crisis. After intravenous administration of saline and cortisol, the corrected serum level of calcium decreased to 7.3 mg/dl. This osteoporotic patient had been prescribed alendronate for radial bone fracture. Since the increase in intact PTH (68 pg/ml) was impaired compared to that seen in hypocalcemic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, we presume that the patient has had latent hypoparathyroidism, which was unmasked by the administration of glucocorticoid and bisphosphonate. With a supplemented dose of 1alpha-OHD3, the patient has been eucalcemic.
"In terms of hypoparathyroidism, previous studies also reported hemochromatosis in the study subjects. Due to difficulties with imaging and biopsy examinations, hypoparathyroidism induced by hemochromatosis was diagnosed although the patients presented with hypocalcemia without increased iPTH [10,11,13,19,20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemochromatosis is an inherited genetic disorder of iron metabolism which can also occur as a secondary result of iron-overload. It leads to organ damage such as cardiomyopathy, liver cirrhosis, hypogonadism, and diabetes. This paper discusses a case of secondary hemochromatosis associated with repeated transfusions, presenting as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with multiple organ involvement. The 29-year-old female, who had severe aplastic anemia, received multiple transfusions totaling approximately 1,400 units of red blood cells over 15 years. During her routine laboratory examination, hypocalcemia was detected with decreased intact parathyroid hormone and increased thyroid stimulating hormone. Serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity had increased to 27,583.03 ng/mL, 291 µg/dL, and 389 µg/dL, respectively. She had unusually bronze skin and computed tomography revealed iron deposition in the thyroid, liver, and heart. Multiorgan involvement as seen in this case is rare in hemochromatosis associated with secondary transfusions. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report in Korea of hypoparathyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism due to iron deposition in the parathyroid and thyroid gland.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Transfusional iron overload primarily results in reticuloendothelial iron accumulation, which is considered to be less harmful than parenchymal iron accumulation. However, systematic and comprehensive data on endocrine function in transfusion-associated haemochromatosis are limited.
We examined 25 aplastic anaemia patients (11 men and 14 women) diagnosed with transfusion-associated haemochromatosis at a single institution. Pituitary function was determined with a combined pituitary function test. On a different day, a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Twenty-two (88%) of these 25 patients had at least one endocrine abnormality, and 12 had more than one abnormality. The most common pituitary hormonal deficiency involved the pituitary-gonadal axis; 54% of the total subjects had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Two patients had an insufficient cortisol response to corticotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation. No patient had a deficiency of growth hormone or thyroid-stimulating hormone. Twelve (48%) had diabetes mellitus, and these patients tended to have higher concentrations of ferritin, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase. Osteoporosis (T-score <-2·5 SD) was observed in 48% of patients. The reduction in BMD was more pronounced in the lumbar spine than in the total hip. The patients with osteoporosis were accompanied by hypogonadism, which predominantly affected the trabecular bone.
Our observations suggest that endocrinopathies are common in transfusion-associated haemochromatosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism is typically identified after referral to a specialty clinic. At diagnosis, patients demonstrate features seen in hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. Normocalcemic hypoparathyroidism has been discovered following hypocalcemia unmasked after bisphosphonate administration.Objective: We hypothesized that screening unselected, non-referral populations, such as The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study and Dallas Heart Study (DHS), would identify asymptomatic subjects with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism.Methods:Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism was defined as serum PTH greater than the upper reference range with normal albumin-adjusted serum calcium, excluding common secondary causes [renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min), 25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/mL, thiazide use], and normocalcemic hypoparathyroidism as PTH below the reference range with normocalcemia. Cross-sectional data was obtained from MrOS, and longitudinal data (baseline and 8 years) from DHS.Results:In 2364 men from MrOS, we identified 9 with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (prevalence 0.4%) and 26 with normocalcemic hypoparathyroidism (1.1%). In 3450 men and women from DHS, we identified 108 with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (3.1%) and 68 with normocalcemic hypoparathyroidism (1.9%). Of the 108 normocalcemic hyperparathyroid subjects, 64 had follow-up data. Hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism developed in 1 subject while 13 (0.6% of the follow-up cohort) showed persistently elevated PTH levels with normocalcemia. Of the 26 normocalcemic hypoparathyroid subjects with follow-up data, none developed overt hypoparathyroidism and 2 (0.09%) had persistent evidence of normocalcemic hypoparathyroidism.Conclusions:This study documents normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism identified among community-dwelling individuals. Larger studies are needed to determine the true prevalence and natural history of these parathyroid disorders.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2013; 98(7). DOI:10.1210/jc.2013-1300 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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