Identification of Id1 in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

Department of Otolaryngology, Xi'an Jiao University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.75). 04/2008; 134(3):306-10. DOI: 10.1001/archotol.134.3.306
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine (1) the relationship between chronic inflammatory changes in the ossicular chain area (OCA) and the formation of cholesteatoma and (2) the correlates between aberrant gene expression and abnormal proliferation of cholesteatoma.
Two hundred sixty-four ears with chronic otitis media that had undergone ear surgery were included in this study for statistical analysis of the relationship between abnormalities in the OCA and cholesteatoma. Fourteen middle ear cholesteatoma specimens were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of candidate molecules involved in the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes. A cell model was used for verification of candidate molecule involvement.
The formation of cholesteatoma was accompanied by chronic inflammatory changes in the OCA, including granulated tissue, adhesion, and stagnating effusion. The inhibitor of the DNA-binding (Id1) gene, which is involved in controlling cell cycle progression, was abundantly expressed in cholesteatoma epithelium. In vitro studies indicate that Id1 regulated the expression of nuclear factor kappaB, cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cell cycle progression of keratinocytes,
Chronic inflammation in the OCA is closely related to the formation of cholesteatoma. The Id1/nuclear factor kappaB/cyclin D1/proliferating cell nuclear antigen signaling pathway is involved in the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes in acquired cholesteatoma.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Although serious complications of otitis media (OM) such as brain abscess are rare, sequelae of OM such as tympanic membrane perforation and atelectatic tympanic membrane are quite common. Inner ear sequelae can cause hearing loss and speech and language problems. The objectives of this article are to provide a state-of-the-art review on recent articles on complications and sequelae of OM in different anatomic locations, from the tympanic membrane to intracranial sites, as well as hearing loss and speech and language development. Data Sources Primarily PubMed supplemented by Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database. Review Methods All types of articles related to OM complications and sequelae published in English between January 2007 and June 2011 were identified. A total of 127 relevant quality articles are summarized and included in this report. Results Key findings are summarized based on the following major anatomic locations and categories: tympanic membrane; cholesteatoma; ossicular problems; mucosal sequelae; inner ear sequelae; speech and language development; extracranial areas, including mastoiditis and facial nerve paralysis; intracranial complications; and future research goals. New information and insights were gained to prevent complications and sequelae. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Over the past 4 years, progress has been made in advancing the knowledge on the complications and sequelae of OM, which can be used to prevent and treat them effectively. Areas of potential future research have been identified and outlined.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 04/2013; 148(4 Suppl):E122-43. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cholesteatoma is a benign keratinizing squamous epithelial lesion characterized by the hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes with abundant production of keratin debris in the middle ear. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/cyclinD1 signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways in regulating cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 signaling pathway may be activated and involved in the cellular hyperplasia mechanism in acquired cholesteatoma epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 protein was performed in 40 cholesteatoma samples and 20 samples of normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium. Protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 in cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly increased when compared with normal EAC epithelium (p < 0.01). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between p-EGFR and p-Akt expression and between the expressions of p-Akt and NF-κB, NF-κB and cyclinD1, respectively (p < 0.01). No significant relationships were observed between the levels of investigated proteins and the degree of bone destruction (p > 0.05). The increased protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, NF-κB and cyclinD1 and their associations in cholesteatoma epithelium suggest that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 survival signaling pathway is active and may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of cellular hyperplasia in cholesteatoma epithelium.
    Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 03/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 04/2013; 148(4 Suppl):E52-63. · 1.72 Impact Factor


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