Phase II study of sunitinib malate, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane
ABSTRACT Sunitinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, stem cell factor receptor (KIT), and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. This phase II, open-label, multicenter study evaluated sunitinib monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
Sixty-four patients previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane received sunitinib 50 mg/d in 6-week cycles (4 weeks on, then 2 weeks off treatment). The primary end point was objective response rate. Plasma samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic and biomarker analysis.
Seven patients achieved a partial response (median duration, 19 weeks), giving an overall response rate of 11%. Three additional patients (5%) maintained stable disease for >or= 6 months. Median time to progression and overall survival were 10 and 38 weeks, respectively. Notably, responses occurred in triple negative tumors and HER2-positive, trastuzumab-treated patients. Thirty-three patients (52%) required dose interruption during >or= 1 cycle, and 25 patients required dose reduction (39%). Thirty-six patients (56%) had dose modifications due to adverse events (AEs). Treatment was associated with increases in plasma VEGF and decreases in soluble VEGFRs and KIT. The most common AEs were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, mucosal inflammation, and anorexia. Most AEs were mild to moderate (grade 1 to 2) in severity and were effectively managed with dose delays or reductions.
Sunitinib is active in patients with heavily pretreated MBC. Most AEs were of mild-to-moderate severity and manageable with supportive treatment and/or dose modification. Further studies in breast cancer are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a large number of entities showing different morphological features and having clinical behaviors. It has became apparent that this diversity may be justified by distinct patterns of genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic aberrations. The identification of gene-expression microarray-based characteristics has led to the identification of at least five breast cancer subgroups: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and basal-like. Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex disease diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, and it is characterized by malignant cells not expressing estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors at all, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Along with this knowledge, recent data show that triple-negative breast cancer has specific molecular features that could be possible targets for new biological targeted drugs. The aim of this article is to explore the use of new drugs in this particular setting, which is still associated with poor prognosis and high risk of distant recurrence and death.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2015; 8:177–193. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S67673 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer growth, infiltration and metastasis, many agents targeting this pathway have been developed over the last decade. Antiangiogenic drugs interfere with this process and may inhibit neoplastic growth or induce tumor dormancy by blocking the expanding network of newly formed capillaries. Despite the initial promise, targeting angiogenesis in breast cancer has not reached major breakthroughs. Nevertheless, the immunologic role of VEGF deserves to be further explored. We aim to describe the biological mechanisms which underlie the role of angiogenesis in breast cancer carcinogenesis, to depict its contribution to the metastatic process and to review the most important clinical trials testing angiogenic inhibitors in breast cancer, including monoclonal antibodies and novel small molecules.Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1586/17512433.2015.1001837
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ABSTRACT: Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most common solid malignancies in China. This study examined the antitumor effect and underlying mechanism of action of sunitinib malate in human bladder TCC in vitro. Bladder TCC cell lines 5637 and BIU87 were maintained in 1640 medium and T24 cell lines in DMEM/F12 medium. All 3 cell lines were then exposed to graded concentrations (0.625-20 μmol/L) of sunitinib malate, sorafenib and cisplatin for 24-96 hours to determine the sensitivities to each drug. Cell viability was measured by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium] assay, and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell apoptotic morphology was observed by a fluorescence microscope after DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining. Protein concentrations were measured by western blot. Sunitinib malate showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the 5637, T24 and BIU87 cell lines with IC50's of 1.74 μmol/L, 4.22 μmol/L, and 3.65 μmol/L, respectively. Cisplatin also exhibited good antitumor activity, but whereas sorafenib suppressed proliferation of the cells at concentrations of 10 μmol/L or higher, there was practically no response at lower concentrations. Sunitinib malate treatment resulted in an accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase, especially with the T24 and BIU87 cell lines, which induced apoptosis of the cells. Sunitinib malate exerted marked inhibitory activity against bladder cancer cells. The cell growth inhibitory effect of the drug was related to induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that clinical application of sunitinib-based therapy for advanced bladder cancer is possible.Cancer Cell International 02/2015; 15:26. DOI:10.1186/s12935-015-0179-z · 1.99 Impact Factor