MEK inhibitor enhances the inhibitory effect of imatinib on pancreatic cancer cell growth.
ABSTRACT Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) inhibits the c-Kit-dependent tyrosine kinase activities and highly effective in the treatment of CML and GIST patients. Although pancreatic cancer is reported to express c-Kit, imatinib does not effectively inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth at physiological concentrations. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of resistance of pancreatic cancer to imatinib treatment. Imatinib inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines in concentration and time-dependent fashion regardless of c-Kit expression. However, 5 microM imatinib, which is almost a mean maximal plasma concentration in clinical setting, failed to suppress pancreatic cancer cell growth. Western blot analysis demonstrated that 5 microM imatinib treatment for 1h activated the MEK-MAPK pathway and the activation was independent of Ras activation. Administration of 5 microM imatinib and 1 microM U0126 (MEK inhibitor) significantly suppressed pancreatic cell growth. Our results indicate that a combination therapy of imatinib and MEK inhibitor can be a new therapeutic strategy to suppress the progression of pancreatic cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Carol J. Thiele[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alternative treatment options are needed for advanced neuroblastoma patients because their prognosis remains poor after intensive chemotherapy. Neuroblastoma cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their respective receptors, PDGFR, c-Kit, and Flk-1. We therefore evaluated the effects of imatinib mesylate (imatinib), a selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activities of c-Kit and PDGFR, on the growth of neuroblastoma cells in vivo and in vitro. We tested seven human neuroblastoma cell lines for their sensitivity to imatinib. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Apoptosis was evaluated by nuclear staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Protein assays included immunoprecipitation, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. mRNA expression was assessed by northern blotting. We used a xenograft model in SCID mice (10 mice per group) to evaluate the effects of imatinib oral therapy (50 or 100 mg/kg every 12 hours for 14 days) on neuroblastoma tumor growth. All statistical tests were two-sided. All seven neuroblastoma cell lines treated with imatinib displayed concentration-dependent decreases in cell viability, which coincided with an induction of apoptosis, and with ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Kit and PDGFR. The imatinib concentrations that caused 50% inhibition of growth and 50% inhibition of ligand-induced phosphorylation of these receptors were 9-13 micro M and 0.1-0.5 microM, respectively. Expression of VEGF, but not phosphorylation of Flk-1, its receptor, was reduced in neuroblastoma cells treated with imatinib at 10 microM or higher. Mice treated with imatinib at 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg had statistically significantly smaller tumors than control mice treated with vehicle (mean tumor volume in mice treated with imatinib at 50 mg/kg = 1546 mm3, in control mice = 2954 mm3; difference = 1408 mm3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 657 to 2159 mm3; P<.001; mean tumor volume in mice treated with imatinib at 100 mg/kg = 463 mm3; difference = 2491 mm3, 95% CI = 1740 to 3242 mm3; P<.001). Imatinib inhibited the growth of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. This inhibition was associated with suppression of PDGFR and c-Kit phosphorylation and inhibition of VEGF expression.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 02/2004; 96(1):46-55. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from malignant transformation of a primitive hematopoietic cell by the BCR/ABL oncogene. The breakpoint cluster region/ABL (BCR/ABL) tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is highly effective in inducing remissions in CML. However, the effects of imatinib on intracellular signaling in primary progenitor cells are not well described. We show that imatinib exposure resulted in a significant dose-responsive reduction in BCR/ABL kinase activity in CML CD34+ cells. However, imatinib treatment resulted in an increase in activity of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important downstream effector of BCR/ABL. Increased MAPK activity was growth factor dependent. Pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK using MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1/2 (MEK-1/2) inhibitors significantly reduced CML progenitor proliferation. Combined treatment with a MEK-1/2 inhibitor and imatinib significantly increased suppression of CML progenitors compared with either inhibitor alone. In contrast, imatinib treatment resulted in a small reduction in AKT activity. Combined treatment with a phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase inhibitor and imatinib significantly increased suppression of CML progenitor growth compared with either inhibitor alone. We conclude that inhibition of BCR/ABL kinase activity in CML progenitors by imatinib results in a growth factor-dependent compensatory increase in MAPK activity and in only partial inhibition of PI-3 kinase activity. These mechanisms may contribute to incomplete elimination of CML progenitors by imatinib.Blood 05/2004; 103(8):3167-74. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Characteristic of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the presence of the chimeric p210(bcr-abl) protein possessing elevated protein tyrosine kinase activity relative to normal c-abl tyrosine kinase. Hematopoietic progenitors isolated from CML patients in the chronic phase contain a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that migrates at 62 kDa by SDS-PAGE and associates with the p120 ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP). We have purified p62(dok) from a hematopoietic cell line expressing p210(bcr-abl). p62(dok) is a novel protein with features of a signaling molecule. Association of p62(dok) with GAP correlates with its tyrosine phosphorylation. p62(dok) is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated upon activation of the c-Kit receptor, implicating it as a component of a signal transduction pathway downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases.Cell 02/1997; 88(2):197-204. · 31.96 Impact Factor