The homeostasis of iron and suppression of HO-1 involved in the protective effects of nimodipine on neurodegeneration induced by aluminum overloading in mice.
ABSTRACT Aluminum intoxication can cause damage to the cognitive function and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of iron homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in the protective effects of nimodipine on the neurodegeneration induced by aluminum overloading in mice. 2 microl of 0.25% aluminum chloride solution was intracerebroventricularly injected once a day for five days to induce the neurodegeneration of mice. Nimodipine was administered by intragastric gavage (80 mg/kg per day) for 30 days. We observed that nimodipine could improve the performance of behavior test related to the learning and memory function and ameliorate pathological changes of hippocampi caused by aluminum. Results of western blot, immunohistochemistry study, biochemical test and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry showed that nimodipine could suppress the increased expression of HO-1 protein, and decrease the elevation of both HO activity and iron level in hippocampi, induced by aluminum overloading. These results indicate that nimodipine can suppress the neurodegenerative development induced by aluminum overloading and the mechanism of its action is at least partly related to keeping the homeostasis of iron through blunting the expression of HO-1 in hippocampus.
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ABSTRACT: The heme oxygenases (HOs), responsible for the degradation of heme to biliverdin/bilirubin, free iron and CO, have been heavily implicated in mammalian CNS aging and disease. In normal brain, the expression of HO-2 is constitutive, abundant and fairly ubiquitous, whereas HO-1 mRNA and protein are confined to small populations of scattered neurons and neuroglia. In contradistinction to HO-2, the ho-1 gene (Hmox1) is exquisitely sensitive to induction by a wide range of pro-oxidant and other stressors. In Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment, immunoreactive HO-1 protein is over-expressed in neurons and astrocytes of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus relative to age-matched, cognitively intact controls and co-localizes to senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and corpora amylacea. In Parkinson disease, HO-1 is markedly over-expressed in astrocytes of the substantia nigra and decorates Lewy bodies in affected dopaminergic neurons. HMOX1 is also up-regulated in glial cells surrounding human cerebral infarcts, hemorrhages and contusions, within multiple sclerosis plaques, and in other degenerative and inflammatory human CNS disorders. Heme-derived free ferrous iron, CO, and biliverdin/bilirubin are biologically active substances that have been shown to either ameliorate or exacerbate neural injury contingent upon specific disease models employed, the intensity and duration of HO-1 expression and the nature of the prevailing redox microenvironment. In 'stressed' astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial sequestration of non-transferrin iron and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure amply documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and other aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact cell survival and neuroplasticity in these conditions by modulating brain sterol metabolism and proteosomal degradation of neurotoxic protein aggregates.Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2009; 110(2):469-85. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms responsible for pathological iron deposition in the aging and degenerating mammalian CNS remain poorly understood. The stress protein, HO-1 mediates the degradation of cellular heme to biliverdin/bilirubin, free iron, and CO and is up-regulated in the brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. HO-1 induction in primary astroglial cultures promotes deposition of non-transferrin iron, mitochondrial damage and macroautophagy, and predisposes cocultured neuronal elements to oxidative injury. To gain a better appreciation of the role of glial HO-1 in vivo, we probed for aberrant brain iron deposition using Perls' method and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry in novel, conditional GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice that selectively over-express human HO-1 in the astrocytic compartment. At 48 weeks, the GFAP.HMOX1 mice exhibited increased deposits of glial iron in hippocampus and other subcortical regions without overt changes in iron-regulatory and iron-binding proteins relative to age-matched wild-type animals. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed abundant FeO(-) signals in the transgenic, but not wild-type, mouse brain that colocalized to degenerate mitochondria and osmiophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (macroautophagy) documented by TEM. Sustained up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes promotes pathological brain iron deposition and oxidative mitochondrial damage characteristic of Alzheimer's disease-affected neural tissues. Curtailment of glial HO-1 hyperactivity may limit iron-mediated cytotoxicity in aging and degenerating neural tissues.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2012; 123(2):325-36. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological investigations have indicated that aluminium (Al) is an important environmental neurotoxicant that may be involved in the aetiology of the cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, exposure to Al is known to cause neurobehavioural abnormalities in animals. Previous studies demonstrated that Al impaired early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in vivo and in vitro. Our previous research revealed that Al could impair long-term memory via the impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in vivo. However, the exact mechanism by which Al impairs long-term memory has been poorly studied thus far. The current study was designed to observe the effects of subchronic Al treatment on long-term memory and hippocampal ultrastructure and to explore a possible underlying mechanism involving the cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling pathway in the hippocampus of rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Neonatal rats were exposed to Al by parental lactation for 3 weeks and then fed with distilled water containing 0, 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% Al chloride (AlCl3) for 3 postnatal months. The levels of Al in the blood and hippocampus were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The shuttle-box test was performed to detect long-term memory. The hippocampus was collected for ultrastructure observation, and the level of cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling was examined. The results showed that the Al concentrations in the blood and hippocampus of Al-treated rats were higher than those of the control rats. Al may impair the long-term memory of rats. Hippocampal cAMP, cPKA, pCREB, BDNF and c-jun expression decreased significantly, and the neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure exhibited pathological changes after Al treatment. These results indicated that Al may induce long-term memory damage in rats by inhibiting cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling and altering the synaptic and neuronal ultrastructure in the hippocampus.Toxicology. 06/2014;