Modulation of adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients by-55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene
ABSTRACT Decreased expression or function of UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) could reduce energy expenditure and increase the storage of energy as fat. Some studies have pointed to a role of UCP3 in the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis, diet induced obesity, and regulation of lipids as metabolic substrates. The C/C genotype of a polymorphism in the UCP3 promoter (-55C-->T) is associated with an increased expression of UCP3 mRNA in muscle. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A population of 107 obese (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after three months of a hypocaloric diet, an indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3-day written food records, and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% of carbohydrates, 25% of lipids and 23% of proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least 3 times per week (60 minutes each). The mean age was 49.5+/-34.5 years and the mean BMI 34.5+/-4.8, with 27 males (25.3%) and 80 females (74.7%). Ninety patients (25 males/65 females) (83.6%) had the genotype 55CC (wild group) and 17 patients (2 male/15 females) (16.4%) 55CT (mutant group). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (wild group: 84.7% vs. mutant group: 81.8%). BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio decreased in the wild group and RMR and VO (2) were increased. In the mutant group, BMI and weight decreased. Leptin and IL-6 levels have a significant decrease in the wild group (9.6%: p<0.05) and (30.5%: p<0.05), respectively. Patients with -55CC genotype have a significant decrease in leptin, interleukin 6, BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio weight, fat mass, and systolic blood pressure.
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific hormone that is commonly decreased in obese subjects. Furthermore, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adiponectin gene have been associated with metabolic phenotypes. The present study investigated whether the adiponectin gene promoter variant -11391 G/A (rs17300539) could predict the risk of developing traits characterizing the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of weight management. The -11391 G/A SNP was genotyped in 180 Spanish volunteers (BMI: 31.4+/-3.2 kg/m (2); age: 35+/-5 years). Clinical measurements were determined at baseline, following an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD), and at 32 and 60 weeks. At baseline, the GG genotype was associated with higher HOMA-IR, insulin and triacylglyceride concentrations than other genotypes (p<0.05) and was also related with a higher risk of insulin resistance (OR: 2.437, p=0.025) and MetS clinical manifestations (OR: 3.236, p=0.003). Following the LCD, the increased risk in GG subjects compared with others disappeared (p>0.05). By 32 weeks after dietary therapy (n=84), GG carriers had recovered the risk of metabolic comorbidities (OR: 2.420, p=0.043). This risk was even more evident after 60 weeks (OR: 2.875, p=0.014). These data show an increased risk of insulin resistance and MetS complications in obese subjects of the -11391 GG genotype. The risk was markedly reduced during an energy-restricted diet, but was not sustained. Carriage of the A allele therefore confers protection from weight regain, and the effect is particularly evident 32-60 weeks after the dietary intervention, when improvement in GG subjects had disappeared.Hormone and Metabolic Research 10/2008; 41(1):55-61. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1087204 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examine how a public health genomics framework can be used to move genomic discoveries into clinical and public health practice for obesity prevention and treatment. There are four phases of translational research: T1: discovery to candidate health application; T2: health application to evidence-based practice guidelines; T3: practice guidelines to health practice; and T4: practice to population health impact. Types of multidisciplinary research and knowledge synthesis needed for each phase, as well as the importance of developing and disseminating evidence-based guidelines, are discussed. Because obesity genomics research is mostly in the discovery phase or in the very early phases of translation (T1), the authors present this framework to illustrate the range of translation activities needed to move genomic discoveries in obesity to actual applications that reduce the burden of obesity at the population level.Obesity 12/2008; 16 Suppl 3(S3):S85-94. DOI:10.1038/oby.2008.517 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smokers weigh less and have less body fat than nonsmokers. Increased body fat and weight gain are observed following smoking cessation. To assess a possible molecular mechanism underlying the inverse association between smoking and body weight, we hypothesized that smoking may induce the expression of a fat-depleting gene in the airway epithelium, the cell population that takes the brunt of the stress of cigarette smoke. To assess whether smoking up-regulates expression in the airway epithelium of genes associated with weight loss, microarray analysis was used to evaluate genes associated with fat depletion in large airway epithelial samples obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers. As a candidate gene we further evaluated the expression of alpha(2)-zinc-glycoprotein 1 (AZGP1), a soluble protein that stimulates lipolysis, induces a reduction in body fat in mice, is associated with the cachexia related to cancer, and is known to be expressed in secretory cells of lung epithelium. AZGP1 protein expression was assessed by Western analysis and localization in the large airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry. Both microarray and TaqMan analysis demonstrated that AZGP1 messenger RNA levels were higher in the large airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared to healthy nonsmokers (p < 0.05, all comparisons). Western analysis of airway biopsy specimens from smokers compared with those from nonsmokers demonstrated up-regulation of AZGP1 at the protein level, and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated up-regulation of AZGP1 in secretory as well as neuroendocrine cells of smokers. In the context that AZGP1 is involved in lipolysis and fat loss, its overexpression in the airway epithelium of chronic smokers may represent one mechanism for the weight difference in smokers vs nonsmokers.Chest 02/2009; 135(5):1197-208. DOI:10.1378/chest.08-1024 · 7.13 Impact Factor