Molecular characteristics of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma subtype, predict response to erlotinib
ABSTRACT We conducted this phase II trial to determine the efficacy of erlotinib in patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype, and to determine molecular characteristics associated with response.
Patients (n = 101) with BAC (n = 12) or adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype (n = 89), were enrolled. All patients received erlotinib 150 mg daily. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, EGFR copy number, EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC), and KRAS mutation status were analyzed in available tumors. The primary end point was response rate (RR).
Overall RR was 22% (95% CI, 14% to 31%). In patients with pure BAC, the RR and median survival were 20% and 4 months, as compared with 23% and 19 months in those with adenocarcinoma, BAC subtype. No patient (zero of 18; 95% CI, 0% to 19%) whose tumor harbored a KRAS mutation responded to erlotinib. Patients with EGFR mutations had an 83% RR (15 of 18; 95% CI, 65% to 94%) and 23-month median OS. On univariate analysis, EGFR mutation and copy number were associated with RR and PFS. EGFR IHC was not associated with RR or progression-free survival (PFS). After multivariate analysis, only EGFR mutation was associated with RR and PFS. No molecular factors were associated with overall survival.
Erlotinib is active in BAC and adenocarcinoma, mixed subtype, BAC. Testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations can predict RR and PFS after treatment with erlotinib in this histologically enriched subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These data suggest that histologic subtype and molecular characteristics should be reported in clinical trials in NSCLC using EGFR-directed therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Mayo Clinic Arizona 2 The first detailed description of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is generally attributed to Averill Liebow in a 1960 series (1) , although clearly this pattern of lung cancer had been previously recognized. Liebow emphasized that this was a well differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in the periphery of the lung with a tendency to spread along the existing lung scaffolding, and to show lymphatic invasion. Mucinous, non-mucinous, papillary, and micropapillary patterns were all included in this original definition. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma became an accepted subtype of nonsmall cell lung cancer and was included in the 1967 and 1981 WHO definitions of tumors of the lung (2,3) . In 1981, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was defined by the WHO as "an adenocarcinoma in which cylindrical tumor cells grow upon the walls of pre-existing alveoli." (3) Mucinous and nonmucinous variants were recognized and this form of carcinoma could be associated with scars and may be associated with a papillary pattern. Based on many series and reviews published between 1960 and 1990 and entity emerged (1-6) , BAC was recognized to comprise 1-9% of lung cancers. Females were relatively more frequently affected. The five-year survival overall was between 25 and 50 percent. The tumors were peripheral and gross/radiologic patterns including single nodule, multiple nodules, and pneumonic in which an entire lobe might be consolidated. An appreciable percentage of cases were stage 2 or 3.
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ABSTRACT: In the era of personalized medicine, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has been a mainstay of treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an EGFR mutation. Acquired resistance, especially substitution of methionine for threonine at position 790 (T790M), which has accounted for more than half of the cases, developed inevitably in patients who were previously treated with EGFR-TKI. At present, there is no standard treatment for patients who have developed a resistance to EGFR-TKI. Several strategies have been developed or suggested to treat such patients. This article aimsto review the EGFR-TKI re-treatment strategy and the efficacy of different generations of EGFR-TKIs in patients with acquired resistance to prior EGFR-TKI.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) has fewer mutations than ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and a less aggressive clinical course. However, an overwhelming majority of LGSC patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy resulting in a poor long-term prognosis comparable to women diagnosed with HGSC. KRAS and BRAF mutations are common in LGSC, leading to clinical trials targeting the MAPK pathway. We assessed the stability of targetable somatic mutations over space and/or time in LGSC, with a view to inform stratified treatment strategies and clinical trial design. Eleven LGSC cases with primary and recurrent paired samples were identified (stage IIB-IV). Tumor DNA was isolated from 1-4 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks from both the primary and recurrence (n = 37 tumor and n = 7 normal samples). Mutational analysis was performed using the Ion Torrent AmpliSeqTM Cancer Panel, with targeted validation using Fluidigm-MiSeq, Sanger sequencing and/or Raindance Raindrop digital PCR. KRAS (3/11), BRAF (2/11) and/or NRAS (1/11) mutations were identified in five unique cases. A novel, non-synonymous mutation in SMAD4 was observed in one case. No somatic mutations were detected in the remaining six cases. In two cases with a single matched primary and recurrent sample, two KRAS hotspot mutations (G12V, G12R) were both stable over time. In three cases with multiple samplings from both the primary and recurrent surgery some mutations (NRAS Q61R, BRAF V600E, SMAD4 R361G) were stable across all samples, while others (KRAS G12V, BRAF G469V) were unstable. Overall, the majority of cases with detectable somatic mutations showed mutational stability over space and time while one of five cases showed both temporal and spatial mutational instability in presumed drivers of disease. Investigation of additional cases is required to confirm whether mutational heterogeneity in a minority of LGSC is a general phenomenon that should be factored into the design of clinical trials and stratified treatment for this patient population.BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):982. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-982 · 3.32 Impact Factor