Single-dose dexamethasone reduces dynamic pain after total hip arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT Preoperative glucocorticoids reduce postoperative nausea but may also improve analgesia and decrease opioid consumption.
Fifty consecutive patients undergoing elective, unilateral, primary total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia with propofol sedation received in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner either 40 mg of dexamethasone or saline placebo i.v. before the start of surgery. I.v. patient-controlled analgesia morphine, ibuprofen 400 mg p.o. q6 h and acetaminophen 650 mg p.o. q6 h were given for 48 h. Pain (0-10 numeric rating scale, NRS) at rest, side effects, and total cumulative patient-controlled analgesia morphine consumption were recorded q4 h for 48 h. Dynamic pain NRS score was recorded at 24 h. C-reactive protein levels were measured in a subgroup of 25 patients at 48 h.
The intraoperative sedation requirement with propofol was significantly increased in the dexamethasone group (234.6 +/- 160.1 vs 138.8 +/- 122.7 mg, P = 0.02). Dynamic pain was greatly reduced in the dexamethasone group (NRS score: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.2-3.1 vs 6.8, 6.4-7.2; P < 0.0001). There was no significant effect on pain at rest or cumulative morphine consumption at any time. C-reactive protein levels at 48 h were markedly reduced by dexamethasone (52.4 mg/mL, 28.2-76.6 vs 194.2, 168.9-219.4; P < 0.0001). Seven patients in the control group, but only one in the dexamethasone group, were treated for nausea (P = 0.05).
A single, preoperative i.v. dose of dexamethasone 40 mg has a prolonged suppressive effect on the inflammatory response and decreases dynamic pain 24 h after total hip arthroplasty.
Article: Transient pretreatment with glucocorticoid ablates innate toxicity of systemically delivered adenoviral vectors without reducing efficacy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: More than 300 human clinical trials utilize recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) as a gene transfer vector, confirming that rAds continue to be of high clinical interest. A primary weakness of rAds is their known propensity to trigger an innate, proinflammatory immune response rapidly after high-dose, systemic administration. In this study, we investigated what affects that pre-emptive treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids might have upon Ad vector-triggered inflammatory immune responses. We found that a simple pretreatment regimen with Dexamethasone (DEX) can significantly reduce most Ad-induced innate immune responses. DEX prevented rAd induction of systemic cytokine/chemokine releases in a dose-dependent fashion, with higher dosages preventing rAd induction of acute thrombocytopenia, endothelial cell activation, proinflammatory gene induction, and leukocyte infiltration into transduced organs. Transient glucocorticoid pretreatment also significantly reduced rAd-induced adaptive immune responses, including a decreased induction of Ad-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Importantly, use of DEX did not reduce the efficacy of rAd-mediated gene transduction nor rAd-derived transgene expression. Our results demonstrate that a simple, pre-emptive and transient glucocorticoid pretreatment is a viable approach to reduce rAd-associated acute toxicities that currently limit the use of Ad vectors in systemic clinical applications.Molecular Therapy 02/2009; 17(4):685-96. · 6.87 Impact Factor
Article: Small-dose dexamethasone improves quality of recovery scores after elective cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of steroid therapy in cardiac surgical patients remains controversial. The aim of this clinical investigation was to determine the effect of small-dose dexamethasone therapy on patient-perceived quality of recovery (QoR) scores in elective cardiac surgical patients. In addition, the authors assessed the impact of dexamethasone on the incidence of common adverse events after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A prospective, randomized study. University hospitals. One hundred seventeen patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB and anticipated early tracheal extubation. Subjects were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (dexamethasone group, 8 mg at the induction of anesthesia and at the initiation of CPB) or placebo (control group, saline). The QoR was assessed using the QoR-40 scoring system preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 2. Secondary outcome measures assessed in the postoperative period included nausea, vomiting, fatigue, febrile responses, shivering, pulmonary gas exchange, and analgesic requirements. Global QoR-40 scores (median [range]) were higher in the dexamethasone group compared with the control group on POD 1 (167 [133-192] v 157 [108-195]; p < 0.0001) and POD 2 (173 [140-196] v 166 [122-196]; p = 0.001). In the dexamethasone group, improved QoR was observed in the QoR-40 dimensions of emotional state (p = 0.002), physical comfort (p = 0.0001-0.006), and pain (p < 0.0001). The incidences or severity of postoperative fatigue (p < 0.0001), febrile responses (p < 0.0001), and shivering (p = 0.001) were reduced in the dexamethasone group. Patient-perceived postoperative QoR in cardiac surgical patients is enhanced significantly by small-dose dexamethasone treatment.Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 05/2011; 25(6):950-60. · 1.06 Impact Factor