Community-based follow-up for late patients enrolled in a district-wide programme for antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia.
ABSTRACT Timely adherence to clinical and pharmacy appointments is well correlated with favourable patient outcomes among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. To date, however, there is little work exploring reasons behind missed visits or evaluating programmatic strategies to recall patients. For this study we implemented community-based follow-up of late patients as part of a large-scale programme for HIV care and treatment in Lusaka, Zambia. Through a network of local home-based care organizations, we attempted home visits to recall patients using locator information provided at time of enrolment. Between May and September 2005, home-based caregivers were dispatched to trace 1,343 patients with missed appointments. Of these, 554 (41%) were untraceable because the provided address was invalid, the patient had moved or no one was at the home. Of the remaining 789, 359 (46%) were reported to have died. Only 430 (54% of those traced, 32% overall) were contacted directly and encouraged to return for care. The likelihood of patient return was higher among traced patients in crude analysis (relative risk [RR] = 2.5; 95%CI = 1.9-3.2) and in multivariable analysis controlling for baseline body mass index, sex and CD4 + count < or = 50/microL (adjusted RR = 2.3; 95%CI = 1.7-3.2). However, the process was inefficient: one late patient returned for every 18 home visits that were made. Reasons for missed visits were provided in 271 of 430 (63%) of the patients who were successfully traced. Common reasons included feeling too sick to come to the clinic, travelling away from home and being too busy. Despite the availability of free ART in Lusaka, patients face significant barriers to attending scheduled clinical visits. Cost-effective and feasible strategies are urgently needed to improve timely patient follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To ascertain estimates of adult patients, recorded as lost to follow-up (LTFU) within antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, who have self-transferred care, died or truly stopped ART in low- and middle-income countries.Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, IndMed and AIM databases (2003-2013) and IAS/AIDS conference abstracts (2011-2013) were searched for tracing studies reporting the proportion of traced patients found to have self-transferred, died or stopped ART. These estimates were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed through subgroup and sensitivity analyses.Results28 studies were eligible for inclusion, reporting true outcomes for 10,806 traced patients attending approximately 258 ART facilities. None were from outside sub-Saharan Africa. 23 studies reported 4.5-54.4% traced LTFU patients self-transferring care, providing a pooled estimate of 18.6% (95% CI 15.8-22.0%). A significant positive association was found between rates of self-transfer and LTFU in the ART cohort. The pooled estimates for unreported deaths was 38.8% (95% CI 30.8-46.8%; 27 studies), and 28.6% (95% CI 21.9-36.0%; 20 studies) for patients stopping ART. A significant decrease in unreported deaths from 50.0% (95% CI 41.5-58.4%) to 30.0% (95% CI 21.1-38.9%) was found comparing study periods before and after 31/12/2007.Conclusions Substantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths among patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12434 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 28 (19%) died within 12 weeks. Lower pretreatment serum phosphate was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.24 per 0.1 mmol/L decrement, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.47; P = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and CD4(+) lymphocyte count. A similar relationship was not observed among participants with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.21; P = 0.74). Conclusions. The association of low pretreatment serum phosphate level and early ART mortality among undernourished individuals may represent a variant of the refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.Journal of nutrition and metabolism 04/2013; 2013:545439. DOI:10.1155/2013/545439
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ABSTRACT: To determine the rate and predictors of early loss to follow-up (LTFU) for recently diagnosed HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-ineligible adults in rural Kenya. Prospective cohort study. Clients registering for HIV care between July 2008 and August 2009 were followed up for 6 months. Baseline data were used to assess predictors of pre-ART LTFU (not returning for care within 2 months of a scheduled appointment), LTFU before the second visit and LTFU after the second visit. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with LTFU before the second visit, while Cox regression was used to assess predictors of time to LTFU and LTFU after the second visit. Of 530 eligible clients, 178 (33.6%) were LTFU from pre-ART care (11.1/100 person-months). Of these, 96 (53.9%) were LTFU before the second visit. Distance (>5 km vs. <1 km: adjusted hazard ratio 2.6 [1.9-3.7], P < 0.01) and marital status (married vs. single: 0.5 [0.3-0.6], P < 0.01) independently predicted pre-ART LTFU. Distance and marital status were independently associated with LTFU before the second visit, while distance, education status and seasonality showed weak evidence of predicting LTFU after the second visit. HIV disease severity did not predict pre-ART LTFU. A third of recently diagnosed HIV-infected, ART-ineligible clients were LTFU within 6 months of registration. Predictors of LTFU among ART-ineligible clients are different from those among clients on ART. These findings warrant consideration of an enhanced pre-ART care package aimed at improving retention and timely ART initiation.Tropical Medicine & International Health 01/2012; 17(1):82-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02889.x · 2.30 Impact Factor