Increasing passive energy expenditure during clerical work.
ABSTRACT Sitting on a therapy ball or standing may be a passive means of increasing energy expenditure throughout the workday. The purpose of this study was to determine the energy expenditure and liking of performing clerical work in various postures. Subjects included 24 men and women employed in sedentary clerical occupations. Energy expenditure was measured while word processing in three standardized postures; sitting in an office chair, sitting on a therapy ball, and standing. Adults ranked their comfort, fatigue, and liking of each posture and were asked to perform their choice of 20 min of additional clerical work in one of the postures. Energy expenditure was 4.1 kcal/h greater (p <or= 0.05) while performing clerical work while sitting on a therapy ball and standing than while sitting in an office chair. There was no difference in energy expenditure between the therapy ball and standing postures (p >or= 0.48). Subjects also liked sitting on a therapy ball as much as sitting in an office chair and liked sitting on a therapy ball more than standing (p <or= 0.05). More subjects chose to perform additional clerical work while seated on a therapy ball than while standing (p = 0.03). In conclusion, sitting on a therapy ball or standing rather than sitting in an office chair while performing clerical work increases passive energy expenditure.
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ABSTRACT: Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are often associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical activity is recommended to reduce excess body weight, prevent body weight regain, and decrease the subsequent risks of developing metabolic and orthopedic conditions. However, the impact of OW and OB on motor function and daily living activities must be taken into account. OW and OB are associated with musculoskeletal structure changes, decreased mobility, modification of the gait pattern, and changes in the absolute and relative energy expenditures for a given activity. While changes in the gait pattern have been reported at the ankle, knee, and hip, modifications at the knee level might be the most challenging for articular integrity. This review of the literature combines concepts and aims to provide insights into the prescription of physical activity for this population. Topics covered include the repercussions of OW and OB on biomechanical and physiological responses associated with the musculoskeletal system and daily physical activity. Special attention is given to the effect of OW and OB in youth during postural (standing) and various locomotor (walking, running, and cycling) activities.Journal of obesity 01/2011; 2011:650230. DOI:10.1155/2011/650230
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ABSTRACT: To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.Work 01/2011; 40(4):345-57. DOI:10.3233/WOR-2011-1246 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: In many societies, increased attention is being paid to develop potential intervention methods that focus on reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity levels. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behaviour among sedentary adults during free-living activities. The monitor is a tri-axial accelerometer system that tracks time spent on daily activities via a wearable device and an accompanying online service. The device monitors a participant’s daily physical activity at 20 Hz and stores the minute data on the device for uploading later to the interactive online software. These data subsequently provide the user with an easy-to-understand visualization of daily activity patterns. Goal-setting features are activated alongside simple graphs and charts to enhance the self-monitoring of energy expenditure. An indicator (a halo bar) on top of the device also highlights the users’ progress towards their daily goal. When palpated throughout the day, the indicator bar provides a light-emitting diode colour corresponding to the user’s progress towards their daily activity goal. Method: Eighteen sedentary adults (12 men, 6 women, mean age ± SD, 29 ± 4.0 year) volunteers were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor at baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 hours/day) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 hours/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 hours/day (p < 0.001). Between baseline and the end of the 4-week intervention, significant increases (p < 0.001) were found in the amount of time spent on light-intensity (45% [2.6 hours/day]), moderate-intensity (33% [1 hour/day]), and energy expenditure (47% [216.7 kcal/day]). A significant increase (p < 0.05) was found in the amount of time spent on vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% [0.16 hour/day]). Discussion: This lifestyle study involving sedentary adults suggests that, when engaging with the online personal activity monitor, individuals decreased (33%) the amount of time they spent in sedentary activities. Such a large reduction in the amount of time spent in sedentary activities has not been previously published. Additionally, participants increased their daily light- and moderate-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure. These results may be considered a step toward development of a meaningfully positive active lifestyle.be active 2014 Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Canberra, Australia; 10/2014