The intracellular and nuclear-targeted delivery of an antiandrogen drug by carrier peptides.
ABSTRACT Cell permeable carrier peptides are currently of interest for their potential to improve the delivery of bioactive molecules into cells and to specific cellular compartments. We have investigated the activity of a derivative of the antiandrogen drug, bicalutamide, attached to the cell-permeable carrier peptide penetratin(R). We have used both disulfide (labile) and thioether (nonlabile) linkages to attach the bicalutamide derivative to the peptide in order to assess whether one type of chemistry has advantages over the other. In addition we have added a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to the carrier peptide to investigate whether localization of the drug to the nucleus of the cell affects the activity of the drug. Biotin-labeled peptides were used to demonstrate that the carrier peptide is rapidly accumulated inside cultured cells, and that the incorporation of an NLS in the sequence results in its nuclear targeting. The bicalutamide derivative linked to carrier peptides via a disulfide-linkage exerted no greater antiproliferative effect in LNCaP cells, than the bicalutamide derivative alone. The bicalutamide derivative linked to the carrier peptide by a non-labile thioether linkage showed a similar activity profile. When the construct includes a nuclear targeting sequence, however, a markedly increased antiproliferative effect was observed. This study has thus shown that the activity of bicalutamide may be enhanced by the nonlabile attachment of a cell-permeable and nuclear-targeted peptide, which has implications for the development of novel antiandrogens for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important target cells for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) in vivo. Several studies have assessed the molecular biology of the virus in this cell type, and a number of differences towards HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells have been described. There is a broad consensus that macrophages resist HIV-1 infection much better than CD4+ T cells. Among other reasons, this is due to the presence of the recently identified host cell restriction factor SamHD1, which is strongly expressed in cells of the myeloid lineage. Furthermore, macrophages produce and release relatively low amounts of infectious HIV-1 and are less sensitive to viral cytotoxicity in comparison to CD4+ T cells. Nevertheless, macrophages play a crucial role in the different phases of HIV-1 infection. In this review, we summarize and discuss the significance of macrophages for HIV-1 transmission, the acute and chronic phases of HIV-1 infection, the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-associated diseases, including neurocognitive disorders. We propose that interaction of HIV-1 with macrophages is crucial during all stages of HIV-1 infection. Thus, long-term successful treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals requires potent strategies to prevent HIV-1 from entering and persisting in these cells.Retrovirology 10/2012; 9(1):82. · 6.47 Impact Factor
Article: Monocytes contribute to differential immune pressure on R5 versus X4 HIV through the adipocytokine visfatin/NAMPT.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The immune system exerts a diversifying selection pressure on HIV through cellular, humoral and innate mechanisms. This pressure drives viral evolution throughout infection. A better understanding of the natural immune pressure on the virus during infection is warranted, given the clinical interest in eliciting and sustaining an immune response to HIV which can help to control the infection. We undertook to evaluate the potential of the novel HIV-induced, monocyte-derived factor visfatin to modulate viral infection, as part of the innate immune pressure on viral populations. We show that visfatin is capable of selectively inhibiting infection by R5 HIV strains in macrophages and resting PBMC in vitro, while at the same time remaining indifferent to or even favouring infection by X4 strains. Furthermore, visfatin exerts a direct effect on the relative fitness of R5 versus X4 infections in a viral competition setup. Direct interaction of visfatin with the CCR5 receptor is proposed as a putative mechanism for this differential effect. Possible in vivo relevance of visfatin induction is illustrated by its association with the dominance of CXCR4-using HIV in the plasma. As an innate factor produced by monocytes, visfatin is capable of inhibiting infections by R5 but not X4 strains, reflecting a potential selective pressure against R5 viruses.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35074. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Induction of SerpinB2 and Th1/Th2 Modulation by SerpinB2 during Lentiviral Infections In Vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SerpinB2, also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2, is a major product of activated monocytes/macrophages and is often strongly induced during infection and inflammation; however, its physiological function remains somewhat elusive. Herein we show that SerpinB2 is induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following infection of pigtail macaques with CCR5-utilizing (macrophage-tropic) SIV, but not the rapidly pathogenic CXCR4-utilizing (T cell-tropic) SHIV. To investigate the role of SerpinB2 in lentiviral infections, SerpinB2 mice were infected with EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV in which HIV gp120 has been replaced with gp80 from ecotropic murine leukemia virus. EcoHIV infected SerpinB2 mice produced significantly lower anti- IgG1 antibody titres than infected SerpinB2 mice, and showed slightly delayed clearance of EcoHIV. Analyses of published microarray studies showed significantly higher levels of SerpinB2 mRNA in monocytes from HIV-1 infected patients when compared with uninfected controls, as well as a significant negative correlation between SerpinB2 and T-bet mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data illustrate that SerpinB2 can be induced by lentiviral infection and support the emerging notion that a physiological role of SerpinB2 is modulation of Th1/Th2 responses.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57343. · 4.09 Impact Factor