Article

Biocompatibility of retrograde root filling materials: A review

Operative Dentistry and Endodontics Department, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Dentistry, Kurupelit-Samsun, Turkey.
Australian Endodontic Journal (Impact Factor: 0.74). 05/2008; 34(1):30-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4477.2007.00085.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of a retrograde filling material is to fill the apical canal space and to obtain a hermetic seal between the periodontium and the root canal system. Several materials have been suggested for root-end filling including: amalgam, gutta-percha, zinc oxide-eugenol cements, glass ionomer cement, gold foil pellets, Cavit, composite resin and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Super-ethoxy benzoic acid and MTA are the most suitable materials and provide better results in apicoectomy procedures than other filling materials. Unfortunately, the ideal material for this purpose has yet to be found. This article is a review of the biocompatibility of retrograde filling materials.

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    • "Although, the ideal material is yet to be found, a number of materials have been suggested for root-end filling including amalgam, composite resin, glass ionomer cement, gold foil, guttapercha , reinforced zinc oxide eugenol based cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement [5] [6] [7] [8]. Amalgam has been a frequently used root-end filling material; it is easy to use, radiopaque and non-resorbable [9]. The characteristics of amalgam as a root-end filling material such as marginal adaptation [10], sealing ability [11], cytotoxicity [12] and biocompatibility [5] have been evaluated. "
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    • "A) Extensive IERR associated with a periapical lesion; B) Placing inter-appointment calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing after drainage; C) Formation of a sinus tract after one week; D) Radiographic confirmation of accurate tooth replantation after extraoral retrograde root canal filling with CEM cement; E-F) Radiographic healing and formation of new bone after six months (E) and 1 year (F) follow-ups mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement have been used [5] [6] "
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after orthodontic treatments is an unusual complication. This case report describes a non-vital maxillary premolar with symptomatic extensive IERR (with a crown/root ratio of 1:1) after receiving orthodontic treatment. The first appointment included drainage, chemo-mechanical preparation of the canal and intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide (CH) along with prescription of analgesic/antibiotic. The subsequent one-week follow-up revealed the persistence of symptoms and formation of a sinus tract. Finally, extraoral endodontic treatment was planned; the tooth was atraumatically extracted and retrograde root canal filling with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed followed by tooth replantation. Clinical signs/symptoms subsided during 7 days postoperatively. The sinus tract also resolved after one week. Six-month and one-year follow-ups revealed complete healing and a fully functional asymptomatic tooth. This case study showed favorable outcomes in a refractory periapical lesion associated with orthodontically induced extensive IERR. The chemical as well as biological properties of CEM cement may be a suitable endodontic biomaterial for these cases.
    03/2014; 9(2):149-52.
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    • "Although, the ideal material is yet to be found, a number of materials have been suggested for root-end filling including amalgam, composite resin, glass ionomer cement, gold foil, guttapercha , reinforced zinc oxide eugenol based cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement [5] [6] [7] [8]. Amalgam has been a frequently used root-end filling material; it is easy to use, radiopaque and non-resorbable [9]. The characteristics of amalgam as a root-end filling material such as marginal adaptation [10], sealing ability [11], cytotoxicity [12] and biocompatibility [5] have been evaluated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the blood mercury levels before and after endodontic surgery using amalgam as a root-end filling material. Fourteen patients requiring periradicular surgery participated in this prospective clinical study. A zinc-free amalgam was employed as root-end filling material. Blood samples were collected at three intervals: immediately before, immediately after and one week postoperatively. Mercury content of the blood was determined using gold amalgamation cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Obtained data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired t-test. The mean (SD) of blood mercury levels was 2.20 (0.24) ng/mL immediately before surgery, 2.24 (0.28) ng/mL immediately after surgery and 2.44 (0.17) ng/mL one week after the periradicular surgery. The blood mercury level one week post-operative was significantly higher than both blood mercury levels immediately before (P<0.001) and immediately after (P=0.005) the surgery. Placement of an amalgam retroseal during endodontic surgery can increase blood mercury levels after one week. The mercury levels however, are still lower than the toxic mercury levels. We suggest using more suitable and biocompatible root-end filling materials.
    08/2013; 8(3):85-8.
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