HIV and STIs in clients and female sex workers in mining regions of Gejiu City, China

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
Sex Transm Dis (Impact Factor: 2.75). 07/2008; 35(6):558-65. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318165926b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) and clients in a mining region of China.
To estimate HIV/STI prevalence and to identify HIV risk factors among FSWs and miner clients.
A cross-sectional study of 96 FSWs and 339 miner clients.
In FSWs, prevalence of HIV was 8.3%, herpes simplex virus-2 70.8%, syphilis 12.5%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 36.8%, Chlamydia trachomatis 46.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 22.1%, and 90.6% were infected with any STI. Illegal drug use was associated with HIV [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 45.1, 95% confidence interval, 6.4-317.9] in FSWs, and 45.8% reported no condom use with the last client. In miner clients, HIV prevalence was 1.8%, herpes simplex virus-2 14.9%, syphilis 2.4%, N. gonorrhoeae 2.1%, C. trachomatis 6.5%, and 23.2% were infected with any STI. Never using condoms with FSWs and regular partners were reported in 61.2% and 84.1%, respectively. Independent risk factors for HIV in miner clients were illegal drug use (OR 190.2), symptoms of urethral discharge or frequent urination (OR 32.9), early sexual debut (OR 7.1), and visiting 4 or more FSWs in the last 12 months (OR 11.5).
HIV/STI prevalence is high among FSWs and moderate among clients in mining regions of Gejiu City. Drug use is the most important factor placing FSWs and miner clients at risk for HIV in Gejiu City; risky sexual characteristics such as early sexual debut, frequent visits to FSWs, and STI symptoms are also important factors for miner clients. FSWs and miner clients may constitute bridging groups for HIV to low-risk populations.

Download full-text


Available from: Jun-Jie Xu, Apr 21, 2015
  • Source
    • "ons towards HIV / STI prevention ( such as condom use ) were intimately linked to the notion of ' trust ' . This finding is consistent with other studies that show the steadiness and intimacy of the relationship is related to condom use among clients and partners ( Couture et al . 2008 ; do Espirito Santo and Etheredge 2003 ; Voeten et al . 2002 ; Xu et al . 2008 ) , potentially putting ' low - risk ' partners at greater risk for HIV / STI infection . In a quantitative study conducted in Escuintla , female sex workers had a high proportion of regular clients and the main reason for not using condoms with them was trust ( Sabidó et al . 2011 ) . The concept of trust seemed to vary greatly among c"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few interventions have targeted clients of female sex workers in Central America, despite their potential role in HIV/STI prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 clients of female sex workers on attitudes towards prevention of HIV/STIs, barriers to condom use and behaviour towards HIV/STI testing and treatment in Escuintla, Guatemala. Despite high knowledge of condoms as an HIV/STI preventive measure, the decision to use them was often based on the client's social judgment of the woman's sexual conduct. Regular clients reported lower condom use. Clients' risk perception diminished with the awareness of the public HIV/STI clinic addressed to female sex workers. Most preferred private clinics to increase confidentiality and were reluctant to take the HIV test for fear of a positive result. Outreach programmes offering HIV/STI counselling and testing to clients of female sex workers could increase their test uptake and health-seeking behaviour and reduce potential transmission to the general population.
    Culture Health & Sexuality 04/2013; 15(7). DOI:10.1080/13691058.2013.777474 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "; B . Wang et al . , 2005 ; Wang et al . , 2008 , 2009a , 2009b ; Xu et al . , 2008 ) . Chlamydia , gonorrhea , and trichomoniasis incidence ranged from 26 . 7Á65 . 9 / 100 person - years , 10 . 2Á17 . 5 / 100 person - years , and 13 . 3Á22 . 4 / 100 person - years with recur - rence of 33% , 21% , and 40% , respectively ( Ma et al . , 2002 ; H . Wang et al . , 2010 ) . Self - reported infections included 3% within the"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Female sex workers (FSW) are at greater risk for HIV and STIs. A systematic literature review of HIV and STI prevalence and incidence data for FSW in China was conducted to assess current trends. Studies between 1996 and 2010 detailing seroprevalence or incidence data, other laboratory-based tests, and clinical diagnoses of infections among FSW were reviewed. Select articles from Chinese literature around street-based and drug-abusing FSW were also reviewed. Results revealed high median prevalence for a variety of STIs among FSW: active syphilis range 0.8-12.5% (median = 6.9%), herpes range 29.7-70.8% (median = 56.2%), chlamydia range 3.9-58.6% (median = 25.7%), gonorrhea range 2.0-85.4% (median = 16.4%), and trichomoniasis range 7.1-43.2% (median = 12.5%). HIV prevalence has remained relatively low and stable with a range of 0-10.3% (median = 0.6%), with the exception of higher prevalence in several areas of Yunnan and some areas of Guangxi. The FSW who are injecting drug users may be at even greater risk for HIV infection with 12-49% found to be HIV positive and 7-25% self-reporting positive status. A number of gaps in the literature remain, especially in the number of studies that detail prevalence confirmed by laboratory testing or that collect incidence data. Assessment of incidence and prevalence according to sampling methodology appropriate for the population, behavioral risks such as injecting drug use, and diverse venues especially those at the lower end are needed. Theory-based interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HIV/STIs need to be piloted with successful models scaled-up.
    AIDS Care 06/2011; 23 Suppl 1:5-25. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.554519 · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • " Wang , Lu , Pu , Zhang , Wong , et al . , 2008 ; Zhang , Wu , & Liu , 2006 ; Chen , Li , Liu , Li , & Pei , 2003 ; Wang , Li , Stanton , Fang , Lin , & Mao , 2007 ) . In a sample of male miners who had paid for sex in Yunnan province , China , the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections ( STIs ) and HIV was 23 . 3% and 1 . 8% respectively ( Xu et al . , 2008 ) . However , little attention has been given to male clients in existing prevention efforts in China ( Hong & Li , 2009 ; Pirkle , Soundardjee , & Stella , 2007 ) . Moreover , most existing behavioral interventions in China have only tried to modify individual - level risk factors , such as HIV - related knowledge ( Hong et al . , 2009"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n = 562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer's condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 08/2010; 71(4):832-9. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.039 · 2.56 Impact Factor
Show more