Growth factors, muscle function and doping.
ABSTRACT Recently much interest has been shown in developing a treatment of muscle wasting associated with a range of diseases as well as in ageing, which are major medical and socioecomonic problems. Emerging molecular techniques have made it possible to gain a better understanding of the growth factor genes involved and how they are activated by physical activity including the IGF-I gene that can be spliced to give rise to different isoforms, one of which is called MGF that activates muscle progenitor cells that provide the extra nuclei required for muscle hypertrophy, repair and maintenance. This fact that MGF 'kick starts' the hypertrophy process clearly has potential for abuse and has already attracted the attention of body builders.
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ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice that overexpress insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) specifically in skeletal muscle have generated much information about the role of this factor for muscle growth and remodelling and provide insight for therapeutic applications of IGF-I for different pathological states and ageing. However, difficulties arise when attempting to critically compare the significance of data obtained in vivo by using different genetically engineered mouse lines and various experimental models. Complications arise due to complexity of the IGF-I system, since multiple transcripts of the IGF-I gene encode different isoforms generated by alternate promoter usage, differential splicing and post-translational modification, and how IGF-I gene expression relates to its diverse autocrine, paracrine and endocrine modes of action in vivo has still to be elucidated. In addition, there are problems related to specification of the exact IGF-I isoform used, expression patterns of the promoters, and availability of the transgene product under different experimental conditions. This review discusses the factors that must be considered when reconciling data from cumulative studies on IGF-I in striated muscle growth and differentiation using genetically modified mice. Critical evaluation of the literature focuses specifically on: (1) the importance of detailed information about the IGF-I isoforms and their mode of action (local, systemic or both); (2) expression pattern and strength of the promoters used to drive transgenic IGF-I in skeletal muscle cells (mono and multi-nucleated); (3) local compared with systemic action of the transgene product and possible indirect effects of transgenic IGF-I due to upregulation of other genes within skeletal muscle; (4) re-interpretation of these results in light of the most recent approaches to the dissection of IGF-I function. Full understanding of these complex in vivo issues is essential, not only for skeletal muscle but for many other tissues, in order to effectively extend observations derived from transgenic studies into potential clinical situations.Growth Hormone & IGF Research 03/2005; 15(1):4-18. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenic factors which control the angiogenic process represent a promising strategy for restoration of blood flow, but require further evaluation before clinical use. Exercise has also been reported to induce neovascularisation in muscles. To evaluate the angiogenic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (a-FGF) on rat gastrocnemius muscle, when administered intramuscularly, and to compare them with those obtained by daily exercise. Forty nine rats were allotted to the following groups: A, controls; B, exercise by swimming; C1 and C2, intramuscular injection of b-FGF and a-FGF respectively; D1 and D2, b-FGF and a-FGF injection in combination with exercise. The antibody mouse anti-rat CD31 was used to evaluate the numbers of blood vessels present in histological preparations of gastrocnemius muscle. Significant increases in the numbers of blood vessels of the right gastrocnemius muscles in groups C1 and D1 were observed compared with controls (p<0.05). There was only a slight increase in angiogenesis in the left gastrocnemius muscle of groups C1 and D1 compared with controls (p>0.05), and there was a decrease in angiogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle of the swimming group compared with controls. The intramuscular administration of b-FGF, but not a-FGF, induced significant local angiogenesis in gastrocnemius muscle at the site of injection.British journal of sports medicine 02/2006; 40(1):35-9; discussion 35-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Early myogenic events in regenerating whole muscle grafts were compared between transgenic MLC/mIGF-1 mice with skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the Exon-1 Ea isoform of insulin-like growth factor-1 (mIGF-1) and control FVB mice, from day 3 to day 21 after transplantation. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies against desmin showed that skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of IGF-1 did not affect the pattern of myoblast activation or proliferation or the onset and number of myotubes formed in regenerating whole muscle grafts. Hypertrophied myotubes were observed in MLC/mIGF grafts at day 7 after transplantation, although such hypertrophy was transient, and the transgenic and control grafts had a similar appearance at later time points (days 10, 14, and 21). Immunostaining with antibodies to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, which identifies endothelial cells, demonstrated no difference in the formation of new vascular network in grafts of transgenic and control mice. Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of mIGF-1 does not appear to stimulate the early events associated with myogenesis during regeneration of whole muscle grafts.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/2004; 52(7):873-83. · 2.26 Impact Factor