Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a quantitative systematic review.
ABSTRACT Initial studies indicate an increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in migraineurs with aura, and an increased prevalence of migraine and migraine with aura in persons with PFO. Retrospective analyses of PFO closure suggest clinically significant improvements in migraine patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of migraine in patients with PFO, the prevalence of PFO in migraineurs, and the effect of PFO closure on migraine. We conducted a quantitative systematic review of articles on migraine and PFO that met inclusion criteria, then reviewed, appraised, and subjected them to data extraction. Of 134 articles identified, 18 met a priori selection criteria. The estimated strength of association between PFO and migraine, reflected by summary odds ratios (ORs), was 5.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.67, 5.59], and between PFO and migraine with aura the OR was 3.21 (95% CI 2.38, 4.17). The grade of evidence was low. The association between migraine and PFO was OR 2.54 (95% CI 2.01, 3.08). The grade of evidence was low to moderate. Six studies of PFO closure suggested improvement in migraine, but had a very low grade of evidence. The low-to-moderate grade of evidence from observational studies supports an apparent association between PFO and migraine. Although PFO closure seemed to affect migraine patterns favourably, the very low grade of available evidence to support this association precludes definitive conclusions.
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ABSTRACT: Migraine is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. In 1980, C. Miller Fisher described late-life migraine accompaniments as transient neurological episodes in older individuals that mimic transient ischemic attacks. There has not been an update on the underlying nature and etiology of late-life migraine accompanimentsd since the original description. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive and extensive review of the late-life migraine accompaniments including the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE®, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases for publications from 1941 to July 2014. The search terms "Migraine accompaniments," "Late life migraine," "Migraine with aura," "Typical aura without headache," "Migraine equivalents," "Acephalic migraine," "Elderly migraine," and "Transient neurological episodes" were used. Late-life onset of migraine with aura is not rare in clinical practice and can occur without headache, especially in elderly individuals. Visual symptoms are the most common presentation, followed respectively by sensory, aphasic, and motor symptoms. Gradual evolution, the march of transient neurological deficits over several minutes and serial progression from one symptom to another in succession are typical clinical features for late-life migraine accompaniments. Transient neurological disturbances in migraine aura can mimic other serious conditions and can be easily misdiagnosed. Careful clinical correlation and appropriate investigations are essential to exclude secondary causes. Treatments are limited and still inconsistent. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. 12/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Several comorbidities are associated to migraine. Recent meta-analyses have consis-tently demonstrated a relationship between migraine and stroke, which is well-defined for ischemic stroke and migraine with aura (MA), even stronger in females on oral contra-ceptives or smokers. However, there seems to be no clear-cut association between stroke in migraineurs and the common vascular risk factors, at least in the young adult popula-tion. Migraineurs also run an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, while the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease remains poorly defined. Another aspect is the relationship between migraine and the presence of silent brain lesions. It has been demonstrated that there is an increased frequency of ischemic lesions in the white mat-ter of migraineurs, especially silent infarcts in the posterior circulation territory in patients with at least 10 attacks per month. Although there is a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in migraineurs, the relationship between migraine and PFO remains controver-sial and PFO closure is not a recommended procedure to prevent migraine. As an increased frequency of cervical artery dissections has been observed in migrainous patients, it has been hypothesized that migraine may represent a predisposing factor for cervical artery dissection. There still remains the question as to whether migraine should be considered a true "vascular disease" or if the comorbidity between migraine and cerebrovascular dis-ease may have underlying shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms. Although further studies are required to clarify this issue, current evidence supports a clinical man-agement where MA patients should be screened for other concomitant vascular risk factors and treated accordingly.Frontiers in Neurology 10/2014; 5:193.
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ABSTRACT: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with cryptogenic strokes, recurrent transient neurologic deficits, sleep apnea, decompression illness and migraines with aura. We verify cryptogenic embolism recurrence after transcatheter PFO closure in patients younger than 55 years old, and determine the prevalence of migraine with aura before and after PFO closure. We sent a questionnaire concerning the recurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and the presence of migraine symptoms before and after PFO closure to 224 consecutive patients (mean age 40.9 ±9 years; 103 men; 108 patients < 40 years old, 116 patients 40-55 years old) after successful PFO transcatheter closure as secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism. The mean follow-up period was 37.8 ±32.5 (median 27) months. Stroke or TIA recurred in 6 patients (2.6%), all of whom were over 40 years old at the time of closure. The median time of recurrence was 24 months. Two patients (0.89%) died, but the deaths were not related to the device nor to thromboembolism. Migraine occurred in the study group before closure in 68 (30.4%) patients. After the procedure 55 (80.9%) reported improvement or disappearance of migraine symptoms. Recurrent strokes after PFO closure are rare, and they occur more often in patients over 40 years old at the time of closure. The PFO closure results in migraine subsiding or symptoms noticeably ameliorating.Postepy w Kardiologii Interwencyjnej / Advances in Interventional Cardiology 01/2014; 10(3):155-160. · 0.07 Impact Factor