[Epidemiology of heart failure].

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia (Impact Factor: 3.34). 03/2004; 57(2):163-70. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.300268
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Of all persons aged over 40 years, approximately 1% have heart failure. The prevalence of heart failure doubles with each decade of life, and is around 10% in persons over 70 years of age. In Spain, heart failure causes nearly 80,000 hospital admissions every year. As in other developed countries, heart failure is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among persons 65 years of age and over, and is responsible for 5% of all hospitalizations. The incidence of heart failure increases with age, and reaches 1% per year in those over 65. Heart failure is a progressive, lethal disorder, even with adequate treatment. Five-year survival is around 50%, which is no better than that for many cancers. In Spain, heart failure is the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, after coronary disease and stroke. In 2000, heart failure caused 4% of all deaths and 10% of cardiovascular deaths in men; the corresponding figures for women were 8% and 18%. In recent decades the prevalence and number of hospitalizations due to heart failure have increased steadily in developed countries. Heart failure will probably continue to increase in coming years: although its incidence has not materially decreased, survival is increasing due to better treatment. The control of risk factors for hypertension and ischemic heart disease, the main causes of heart failure in Spain, is the only method to halt the foreseeable increase in heart failure in the near future.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This investigation explored the short-term prognostic value of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We measured plasma levels of PTX3 and other biomarkers in 525 PCI-treated NSTEMI patients (mean age, 57.7 years; 328 males). The associations of PTX3 levels with cardiac events and cardiac deaths occurring within 30 days of discharge were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Renal function, diabetes prevalence, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and ejection fraction differed significantly in the high PTX3 (≥3.0 ng/ml, n = 107) and low PTX3 (<3.0 ng/ml, n = 418) groups (all p < 0.05). Plasma PTX3 levels were correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in NSTEMI patients (all p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed in-hospital and 30-day cardiac events and deaths were higher in the high PTX3 group (both p < 0.01). Elevated PTX3 was an independent predictor of 30-day cardiac events (95% CI 1.09-1.68; p = 0.006) and mortality (95% CI 1.18-2.15; p = 0.002). Conclusions: An elevated plasma level of PTX3 predicts 30-day cardiac events and mortality in PCI-treated NSTEMI patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cardiology 10/2014; 129(3):178-188. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a leading reason for hospitalisation and readmissions to hospital, particularly among individuals older than 65 years of age. The prognosis of patients with HF is grim, with high rates of mortality risk and hospital readmissions. The transition period early after hospital discharge represents a window of opportunity to positively influence patient outcomes using quality improvement (QI) strategies. However, little is known about which QI interventions exist for early events of HF after discharge, so the main objective of our study is to conduct a scoping review of the literature to determine which QI strategies are effective for reducing hospital readmissions and mortality for patients with HF who transition from the hospital back into independent living. We will also investigate which elements contribute to effective QI strategies. We will search the literature in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane library for randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews evaluating QI interventions aimed at improving outcomes for patients with HF transitioning from the hospital back into the community. Two reviewers will independently apply our eligibility criteria at level 1 (abstract/title) and level 2 (full-text) screening; disagreements will be resolved through consensus. We will extract data in duplicate on study characteristics, population, setting, QI intervention and outcomes. We will synthesise results descriptively and explore QI elements to determine which aspect contributes to its impact. We will also consider synthesis of our data according to several conceptual frameworks such as Wagner's Chronic Care Model. The findings of this scoping review will be used to determine which elements should comprise a QI intervention aimed at facilitating the transition of newly admitted patients with HF back into the community. We will disseminate our findings through publications, presentations as well as through a stakeholder meeting to generate key messages most relevant to each. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 11/2014; 4(11):e005711. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a life-threatening disease and addressing it should be considered a global health priority. At present, approximately 26 million people worldwide are living with heart failure. The outlook for such patients is poor, with survival rates worse than those for bowel, breast or prostate cancer. Furthermore, heart failure places great stresses on patients, caregivers and healthcare systems. Demands on healthcare services, in particular, are predicted to increase dramatically over the next decade as patient numbers rise owing to ageing populations, detrimental lifestyle changes and improved survival of those who go on to develop heart failure as the final stage of another disease. It is time to ease the strain on healthcare systems through clear policy initiatives that prioritize heart failure prevention and champion equity of care for all.Despite the burdens that heart failure imposes on society, awareness of the disease is poor. As a result, many premature deaths occur. This is in spite of the fact that most types of heart failure are preventable and that a healthy lifestyle can reduce risk. Even after heart failure has developed, premature deaths could be prevented if people were taught to recognize the symptoms and seek immediate medical attention. Public awareness campaigns focusing on these messages have great potential to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure and ultimately to save lives.Compliance with clinical practice guidelines is also associated with improved outcomes for patients with heart failure. However, in many countries, there is considerable variation in how closely physicians follow guideline recommendations. To promote equity of care, improvements should be encouraged through the use of hospital performance measures and incentives appropriate to the locality. To this end, policies should promote the research required to establish an evidence base for performance measures that reflect improved outcomes for patients.Continuing research is essential if we are to address unmet needs in caring for patients with heart failure. New therapies are required for patients with types of heart failure for which current treatments relieve symptoms but do not address the disease. More affordable therapies are desperately needed in the economically developing world. International collaborative research focusing on the causes and treatment of heart failure worldwide has the potential to benefit tens of millions of people.Change at the policy level has the power to drive improvements in prevention and care that will save lives. It is time to make a difference across the globe by confronting the problem of heart failure.A call to action: policy recommendationsWe urge policymakers at local, national and international levels to collaborate and act on the following recommendations.Promote heart failure preventionSupport the development and implementation of public awareness programmes about heart failure. These should define heart failure in simple and accessible language, explain how to recognize the symptoms and emphasize that most types of heart failure are preventable.Highlight the need for healthcare professionals across all clinical disciplines to identify patients with illnesses that increase the risk of heart failure and to prescribe preventive medications.Prioritize the elimination of infectious diseases in parts of the world where they still cause heart failure.Improve heart failure awareness amongst healthcare professionalsEncourage the development and use of heart failure education programmes for all appropriate healthcare professionals. These should aim to improve the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and long-term management of heart failure and raise awareness of clinical practice guidelines.Ensure equity of care for all patients with heart failureProvide a healthcare system that delivers timely access to diagnostic services and treatment of heart failure, as well as a seamless transition to long-term management.Ensure that the best available and most appropriate care is consistently provided to all patients with heart failure through efficient use of resources.Support and empower patients and their caregiversProvide resources for the education and practical support of patients with heart failure and their families or other caregivers, empowering them to engage proactively in long-term care.Promote heart failure researchFund and encourage international collaborative research to improve understanding of the patterns, causes and effects of modern day heart failure and how the disease can be prevented across the globe.Fund and encourage research into new and more affordable therapies and medical devices for all types of heart failure.Fund and encourage research into evidence-based healthcare performance measures that reflect improved clinical outcomes for patients with heart failure.
    ESC Heart Failure. 09/2014; 1(1).

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