A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that the unique fatty acid profile of nuts beneficially affects serum lipids/lipoproteins, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Nuts are low in SFA and high in PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts are a rich source of MUFA. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study (5-wk diet periods) compared a Macadamia nut-rich diet [42.5 g (1.5 ounces)/8.79 MJ (2100 kcal)] [MAC; 33% total fat (7% SFA, 18% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] vs. an average American diet [AAD; 33% total fat (13% SFA, 11% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] on the lipid/lipoprotein profile of mildly hypercholesterolemic (n = 25; 15 female, 10 male) subjects. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) following the MAC (4.94 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.14 +/- 0.14 mmol/L) were lower than the AAD (5.45 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.44 +/- 0.14 mmol/L; P < 0.05). The serum non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C were reduced following consumption of the MAC diet (3.83 +/- 0.17, 4.60 +/- 0.24, and 2.91 +/- 0.17, respectively) compared with the AAD (4.26 +/- 0.17, 4.89 +/- 0.24, and 3.09 +/- 0.18, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no change in serum triglyceride concentration. Thus, macadamia nuts can be included in a heart-healthy dietary pattern that reduces lipid/lipoprotein CVD risk factors. Nuts as an isocaloric substitute for high SFA foods increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and decrease SFA, thereby lowering CVD risk.
SourceAvailable from: Shamsul Azahari Zainal Badari
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ABSTRACT: Palmitoleic acid was previously shown to improve glucose homeostasis by reducing hepatic glucose production and by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Herein we tested the hypothesis that palmitoleic acid positively modulates glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes. For this, both differentiated 3 T3-L1 cells treated with either palmitoleic acid (16:1n7, 200 muM) or palmitic acid (16:0, 200 muM) for 24 h and primary adipocytes from mice treated with 16:1n7 (300 mg/kg/day) or oleic acid (18:1n9, 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 10 days were evaluated for glucose uptake, oxidation, conversion to lactate and incorporation into fatty acids and glycerol components of TAG along with the activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes. Treatment of adipocytes with palmitoleic, but not oleic (in vivo) or palmitic (in vitro) acids, increased basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 mRNA levels and protein content. Along with uptake, palmitoleic acid enhanced glucose oxidation (aerobic glycolysis), conversion to lactate (anaerobic glycolysis) and incorporation into glycerol-TAG, but reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose and acetate and the activity of lipogenic enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP-citrate lyase. Importantly, palmitoleic acid induction of adipocyte glucose uptake and metabolism were associated with AMPK activation as evidenced by the increased protein content of phospho(p)Thr172AMPKalpha, but no changes in pSer473Akt and pThr308Akt. Importantly, such increase in GLUT4 content induced by 16:1n7, was prevented by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C. In conclusion, palmitoleic acid increases glucose uptake and the GLUT4 content in association with AMPK activation.Lipids in Health and Disease 12/2014; 13(1):199. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-199 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of different housing systems was evaluated on productive performances and carcass and meat quality of a “local grey” population of rabbits (G). To compare data obtained from G, commercial hybrid rabbits (H) were reared and fed under standard practice. Rabbits were reared as follows: 96 G in outdoor colony cages (O) and fed organic feed based on pelleted feed (oP) and alfalfa hay (H) - group GOoPH; 80 G in conventional indoor colony cages (I) and fed the same organic diet (GoPH) - group GIoPH; 96 G in I and fed conventional pelleted diet (cP) - group GIcP; 88 H in I and fed conventional pelleted diet (cP) - group HIcP. Fifteen rabbits of each group were slaughtered at live weight of 2500 g (100 days of age for G and 87 days of age for H), carcass and meat quality parameters were assessed. HIcP showed the highest average daily gain (33.5 g/day; P<0.05) and GOoPH the poorest total feed conversion (5.6; P<0.05). G showed the highest slaughter yield (P<0.05). GOoPH showed higher loin proportion and the lowest LL pH at 45 min post mortem (P<0.05). HIcP produced LL and BF meat with the less intense colour and rich in ash. LL meat of GOoPH was the richest in protein. GOoPH and GIoPH LL meat showed higher amount of C14:0 and 18:1 n-9. GOoPH showed the lowest value of 18:2 n-6, and HIcP showed the highest value of 20:4 n-6 and the lowest amount of 16:1 n-7. The G yielded meat with higher nutritive value, and the best results were obtained when animals received both pellets and hay and were reared outdoor.Animal science papers and reports 01/2014; 32(4):337-349.. · 0.81 Impact Factor