This paper describes the prevalence of brain lesions in the Swiss fallen stock population of small ruminants. 3075 whole brains (75% sheep, 25% goats) were collected as part of a year-long active survey of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in small ruminants conducted by the Swiss authorities between July 2004 and July 2005. All fallen stock brains were systematically examined by histopathology to obtain reliable data on histologically identifiable brain lesions. Lesions were found in an unexpectedly high number of animals (8.1% of all examined brains). A wide spectrum of diseases was detected showing that this approach provides an excellent opportunity to screen for the prevalence of neurological diseases. Encephalitic listeriosis was by far the most frequent cause of CNS lesions in both species and its prevalence was unexpectedly high when compared to notified confirmed cases. In conclusion, the prevalence of listeriosis as estimated by passive surveillance based on the notification of clinical suspects has been underestimated in the past.
"2001; Hofshagen et al. 2002, 2003). However, as in Switzerland, where listeriosis was found to be surprisingly frequent in small ruminant fallen stock during a neuropathological survey (Oevermann et al. 2008) the incidence is probably higher, due to non-reported and undiagnosed cases. Listeria spp. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsListeriosis is a frequent silage-associated disease in ruminants. The slugs Arion vulgaris are invaders in gardens, vegetable crops and meadows for silage production. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to clarify whether slugs could host Listeria monocytogenes and thereby constitute a threat to animal feed safety.Methods and ResultsSelective culture of L. monocytogenes from 79 pooled slug samples (710 slugs) resulted in 43% positive, 16% with mean L. monocytogenes values of 405 CFU g−1 slug tissues. Of 62 individual slugs cultured, 11% also tested positive from surface/mucus. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 36 isolates from different slug pools identified 20 sequence types belonging to L. monocytogenes lineages I and II. Slugs fed ≅4·0 × 105 CFUL. monocytogenes, excreted viable L. monocytogenes in faeces for up to 22 days. Excretion of L. monocytogenes decreased with time, although there were indications of a short enrichment period during the first 24 h.Conclusions
Arion vulgaris may act as a vector for L. monocytogenes.Significance and Impact of the StudyHighly slug-contaminated grass silage may pose a potential threat to animal feed safety.
"Even though neurological disorders of small ruminants have been well defined in standard textbooks ( Matin and Aitken 2000 ; Ferrer et al . 2002 ) , there are not many studies reporting the real prevalence of these diseases . Oevermann et al . ( 2008 ) reported the prevalence of brain lesions in the Swiss fallen stock population of small ruminants . Over 3 , 075 brains were analyzed and lesions were found in an unexpectedly high number of animals ( 8 . 1% ) . The results show that inflammatory disorders were the most frequent cause of CNS lesions ( 74 . 7% ) , followed by toxic / me"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary neoplasms of the central nervous system have been rarely reported in sheep. A three-year-old Rasa Aragonesa ewe was admitted to the small ruminant external consultancy at the Veterinary Faculty of University of Zaragoza, Spain. Clinical, haematological and neurological examinations were performed. Neurological examination showed signs of ataxia, hyperextension of the right front limb and abnormal postural reactions. The animal was unable to stand and walk, even with help. Patellar and flexor reflexes were normal and superficial sensation was present but decreased. Humanitarian sacrifice was carried out one month later. Gross and histopathological findings revealed a choroid plexus papilloma located in the fourth ventricle of the brain. To the authors' knowledge this is the first description of this neoplastic disorder in sheep.
Acta Veterinaria Brno 01/2013; 82(1-1):9-11. DOI:10.2754/avb201382010009 · 0.47 Impact Factor
"Although LM is able to infect a wide range of animal species, it occurs primarily in farm ruminants and humans  . In both hosts, the prevalence of listeriosis has risen significantly since the 1980s resulting in intensified surveillance and control of LM in food industry, which contributed to a decrease of human listeriosis cases in the last two decades  . However, in various European countries its prevalence has again increased in the last few years [9, 10, 51–53]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listeriosis is an emerging zoonotic infection of humans and ruminants worldwide caused by Listeria monocytogenes (LM). In both host species, CNS disease accounts for the high mortality associated with listeriosis and includes rhombencephalitis, whose neuropathology is strikingly similar in humans and ruminants. This review discusses the current knowledge about listeric encephalitis, and involved host and bacterial factors. There is an urgent need to study the molecular mechanisms of neuropathogenesis, which are poorly understood. Such studies will provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies that aim to prevent LM from invading the brain and spread within the CNS.
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 2010(1687-708X):632513. DOI:10.1155/2010/632513
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