Article

New components of the Drosophila fusome suggest it plays novel roles in signaling and transport

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 06/2008; 317(1):59-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.02.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The fusome plays an essential role in prefollicular germ cell development within insects such as Drosophila melanogaster. Alpha-spectrin and the adducin-like protein Hu-li tai shao (Hts) are required to maintain fusome integrity, synchronize asymmetric cystocyte mitoses, form interconnected 16-cell germline cysts, and specify the initial cell as the oocyte. By screening a library of protein trap lines, we identified 14 new fusome-enriched proteins, including many associated with its characteristic vesicles. Our studies reveal that fusomes change during development and contain recycling endosomal and lysosomal compartments in females but not males. A significant number of fusome components are dispensable, because genetic disruption of tropomodulin, ferritin-1 heavy chain, or scribble, does not alter fusome structure or female fertility. In contrast, rab11 is required to maintain the germline stem cells, and to maintain the vesicle content of the spectrosome, suggesting that the fusome mediates intercellular signals that depend on the recycling endosome.

0 Followers
 · 
60 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous work on dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula has identified the testicular germinative area as the spermatogonial stem cell niche. In the present study, an in vitro co-culture system of spermatogonia and somatic cells from the germinative area has been developed. Long term maintenance of spermatogonia has been successful and addition of GDNF has promoted the development of clones of spermatogonia expressing stem-cells characteristics such as alkaline phosphatase activity, and has allowed to maintain self-renewal of spermatogonia for at least five months under culture conditions, notably by decreasing cell apoptosis. Furthermore, clones of spermatogonia expressed the receptor of GDNF, GFRalpha1, which is consistent with the effect of GDNF on cells despite the lack of identification of a GDNF sequence in the dogfish's transcriptome. However, a sequence homologous to artemin has been identified and in silico analysis supports the hypothesis that artemin could replace GDNF in the germinative area in dogfish. This study, as the first report on long-term in vitro maintenance of spermatogonia in a chondrichthyan species, suggests that the GFRalpha1 signaling function in self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells is probably conserved in Gnathostomes.
    Biology of Reproduction 08/2014; 91(4). DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.113.116020 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human Taspase1 is essential for development and cancer by processing critical regulators, such as the mixed-lineage leukemia protein. Likewise, its ortholog, trithorax, is cleaved by Drosophila Taspase1 (dTaspase1), implementing a functional coevolution. To uncover novel mechanism regulating protease function, we performed a functional analysis of dTaspase1 and its comparison to the human ortholog. dTaspase1 contains an essential nucleophile threonine(195), catalyzing cis cleavage into its α- and β-subunits. A cell-based assay combined with alanine scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that the target cleavage motif for dTaspase1 (Q(3)[F/I/L/M](2)D(1)↓G(1')X(2')X(3')) differs significantly from the human ortholog (Q(3)[F,I,L,V](2)D(1)↓G(1')x(2')D(3')D(4')), predicting an enlarged degradome containing 70 substrates for Drosophila. In contrast to human Taspase1, dTaspase1 shows no discrete localization to the nucleus/nucleolus due to the lack of the importin-α/nucleophosmin1 interaction domain (NoLS) conserved in all vertebrates. Consequently, dTaspase1 neither interacts with the Drosophila nucleoplasmin-like protein nor human nucleophosmin1. The impact of localization on the protease's degradome was confirmed by demonstrating that dTaspase1 did not efficiently process nuclear substrates, such as upstream stimulatory factor 2. However, genetic introduction of the NoLS into dTaspase1 restored its nucleolar localization, nucleophosmin1 interaction, and efficient cleavage of nuclear substrates. We report that evolutionary functional divergence separating vertebrates from invertebrates can be achieved for proteases by a transport/localization-regulated mechanism.-Wünsch, D., Hahlbrock, A., Heiselmayer, C., Bäcker, S., Heun, P., Goesswein, D., Stöcker, W., Schirmeister, T., Schneider, G., Krämer, O. H., Knauer, S. K., Stauber, R. H. Fly versus man: Evolutionary impairment of nucleolar targeting affects the degradome of Drosophila's Taspase1. © FASEB.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.
    Development 08/2014; 141(15):2984-92. DOI:10.1242/dev.109827 · 6.27 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
23 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014