Radiosynthesis and initial evaluation of [18F]-FEPPA for PET imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors.
ABSTRACT A novel [18F]-radiolabelled phenoxyanilide, [18F]-FEPPA, has been synthesized and evaluated, in vitro and ex vivo, as a potential positron emission tomography imaging agent for the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR).
[18F]-FEPPA and two other radiotracers for imaging PBR, namely [11C]-PBR28 and [11C]-PBR28-d3, were synthesised and evaluated in vitro and ex vivo as potential PBR imaging agents.
[18F]-FEPPA is efficiently prepared in one step from its tosylate precursor and [18F]-fluoride in high radiochemical yields and at high specific activity. FEPPA displayed a Ki of 0.07 nM for PBR in rat mitochondrial membrane preparations and a suitable lipophilicity for brain penetration (log P of 2.99 at pH 7.4). Upon intravenous injection into rats, [18F]-FEPPA showed moderate brain uptake [standard uptake value (SUV) of 0.6 at 5 min] and a slow washout (SUV of 0.35 after 60 min). Highest uptake of radioactivity was seen in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, regions previously reported to be enriched in PBR in rat brain. Analysis of plasma and brain extracts demonstrated that [18F]-FEPPA was rapidly metabolized, but no lipophilic metabolites were observed in either preparation and only 5% radioactive metabolites were present in brain tissue extracts. Blocking studies to determine the extent of specific binding of [18F]-FEPPA in rat brain were problematic due to large perturbations in circulating radiotracer and the lack of a reference region.
Further evaluation of the potential of [18F]-FEPPA will require the employment of rigorous kinetic models and/or appropriate animal models.
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ABSTRACT: DPA-C5yne, the lead compound of a novel series of DPA-714 derivatives in which the fluoroethoxy chain linked to the phenylpyrazolopyrimidine scaffold has been replaced by a fluoroalkyn-1-yl moiety, is a high affinity (Ki : 0.35 nM) and selective ligand targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa. In the present work, DPA-C5yne was labelled with no-carrier-added [(18) F]fluoride based on a one-step tosyloxy-for-fluorine nucleophilic substitution reaction, purified by cartridge and HPLC, and formulated as an i.v. injectable solution using a TRACERLab FX N Pro synthesizer. Typically, 4.3-5.2 GBq of [(18) F]DPA-C5yne, ready-to-use, chemically and radiochemically pure (> 95%), was obtained with specific radioactivities ranging from 55 to 110 GBq/µmol within 50-60 min, starting from a 30 GBq [(18) F]fluoride batch (14-17%). LogP and LogD of [(18) F]DPA-C5yne were measured using the shake-flask method and values of 2.39 and 2.51 were found, respectively. Autoradiography studies performed on slices of ((R,S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionique (AMPA)-lesioned rat brains showed a high target-to-background ratio (1.9 ± 0.3). Selectivity and specificity of the binding for the translocator protein was demonstrated using DPA-C5yne (unlabelled), PK11195 and Flumazenil (central benzodiazepine receptor ligand) as competitors. Furthermore, DPA-C5yne proved to be stable in plasma at 37°C for at least 90 min. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Labelled Compounds 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Although neurological ailments continue to be some of the main causes of disease burden in the world, current therapies such as pharmacological agents have limited potential in the restoration of neural functions. Cell therapies, firstly applied to treat different hematological diseases, are now being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies for neurological illnesses. However, the potential applications and mechanisms for such treatments are still poorly comprehended and are the focus of permanent research. In this setting, noninvasive in vivo imaging allows better understanding of several aspects of stem cell therapies. Amongst the various methods available, radioisotope cell labeling has become one of the most promising since it permits tracking of cells after injection by different routes to investigate their biodistribution. A significant increase in the number of studies utilizing this method has occurred in the last years. Here, we review the different radiopharmaceuticals, imaging techniques, and findings of the preclinical and clinical reports published up to now. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and future applications of radioisotope cell labeling in the field of cell transplantation for neurological diseases.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:417091. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of four novel analogues of DPA-714, bearing a fluoroalkynyl side chain (with a length ranging from three to six carbon atoms) in replacement of the fluoroethoxy motif, have been synthetized in six steps from commercially available methyl 4-iodobenzoate. The synthetic strategy for the preparation of these N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(ω-fluoroalk-1-ynyl)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamides (7a-d) consisted in derivatizing a key iodinated building block featuring the pyrazolopyrimidine acetamide backbone of DPA-714, by Sonogashira couplings with various alkynyl reagents. The resulting alkynols were subsequently fluorinated, yielding the expected target derivatives. All four analogues exhibited slightly higher affinity and selectivity towards the TSPO 18kDa (Ki vs [(3)H]PK11195: 0.35-0.79nM; Ki vs [(3)H]flunitrazepam: >1000nM) when compared to DPA-714 (Ki vs [(3)H]PK11195: 0.91nM; Ki vs [(3)H]flunitrazepam: >1000nM). Lipophilicities (HPLC, logD7.4) increased with the chain length (from 3.6 to 4.3) and were significantly higher than the one determined for DPA-714 (2.9). Preliminary in vitro metabolism evaluation using rat microsomal incubations and LC-MS analyses showed, for all four novel analogues, the absence of defluorinated metabolites. Among them, the fluoropentynyl compound, DPA-C5yne (7c), was selected, labelled in one single step with fluorine-18 from the corresponding tosylate and in vivo evaluated with PET on our in-house-developed rat model of acute local neuroinflammation.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor