Radiosynthesis and initial evaluation of [18F]-FEPPA for PET imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors.
ABSTRACT A novel [18F]-radiolabelled phenoxyanilide, [18F]-FEPPA, has been synthesized and evaluated, in vitro and ex vivo, as a potential positron emission tomography imaging agent for the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR).
[18F]-FEPPA and two other radiotracers for imaging PBR, namely [11C]-PBR28 and [11C]-PBR28-d3, were synthesised and evaluated in vitro and ex vivo as potential PBR imaging agents.
[18F]-FEPPA is efficiently prepared in one step from its tosylate precursor and [18F]-fluoride in high radiochemical yields and at high specific activity. FEPPA displayed a Ki of 0.07 nM for PBR in rat mitochondrial membrane preparations and a suitable lipophilicity for brain penetration (log P of 2.99 at pH 7.4). Upon intravenous injection into rats, [18F]-FEPPA showed moderate brain uptake [standard uptake value (SUV) of 0.6 at 5 min] and a slow washout (SUV of 0.35 after 60 min). Highest uptake of radioactivity was seen in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, regions previously reported to be enriched in PBR in rat brain. Analysis of plasma and brain extracts demonstrated that [18F]-FEPPA was rapidly metabolized, but no lipophilic metabolites were observed in either preparation and only 5% radioactive metabolites were present in brain tissue extracts. Blocking studies to determine the extent of specific binding of [18F]-FEPPA in rat brain were problematic due to large perturbations in circulating radiotracer and the lack of a reference region.
Further evaluation of the potential of [18F]-FEPPA will require the employment of rigorous kinetic models and/or appropriate animal models.
SourceAvailable from: Grazyna Rajkowska[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neuroinflammatory hypothesis of major depressive disorder is supported by several main findings. First, in humans and animals, activation of the immune system causes sickness behaviors that present during a major depressive episode (MDE), such as low mood, anhedonia, anorexia, and weight loss. Second, peripheral markers of inflammation are frequently reported in major depressive disorder. Third, neuroinflammatory illnesses are associated with high rates of MDEs. However, a fundamental limitation of the neuroinflammatory hypothesis is a paucity of evidence of brain inflammation during MDE. Translocator protein density measured by distribution volume (TSPO VT) is increased in activated microglia, an important aspect of neuroinflammation. To determine whether TSPO VT is elevated in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and insula in patients with MDE secondary to major depressive disorder. Case-control study in a tertiary care psychiatric hospital from May 1, 2010, through February 1, 2014. Twenty patients with MDE secondary to major depressive disorder and 20 healthy control participants underwent positron emission tomography with fluorine F 18-labeled N-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)-N-(4-phenoxypyridin-3-yl)acetamide ([18F]FEPPA). Patients with MDE were medication free for at least 6 weeks. All participants were otherwise healthy and nonsmokers. Values of TSPO VT in the prefrontal cortex, ACC, and insula. In MDE, TSPO VT was significantly elevated in all brain regions examined (multivariate analysis of variance, F15,23 = 4.5 [P = .001]). The magnitude of TSPO VT elevation was 26% in the prefrontal cortex (mean [SD] TSPO VT, 12.5 [3.6] in patients with MDE and 10.0 [2.4] in controls), 32% in the ACC (mean [SD] TSPO VT, 12.3 [3.5] in patients with MDE and 9.3 [2.2] in controls), and 33% in the insula (mean [SD] TSPO VT, 12.9 [3.7] in patients with MDE and 9.7 [2.3] in controls). In MDE, greater TSPO VT in the ACC correlated with greater depression severity (r = 0.63 [P = .005]). This finding provides the most compelling evidence to date of brain inflammation, and more specifically microglial activation, in MDE. This finding is important for improving treatment because it implies that therapeutics that reduce microglial activation should be promising for MDE. The correlation between higher ACC TSPO VT and the severity of MDE is consistent with the concept that neuroinflammation in specific regions may contribute to sickness behaviors that overlap with the symptoms of MDE.JAMA Psychiatry 01/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2427 · 12.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adequate estimation of neuroinflammatory processes following ischemic stroke is essential for better understanding of disease mechanisms, and for the development of treatment strategies. With the TSPO (18 kDa translocator protein) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(11)C]PBR28, we monitored longitudinally the inflammatory response post-transient cerebral ischemia in rats, using a recently developed rat stroke model that produces isolated focal cortical infarcts with clinical relevance in size and pathophysiology. Six Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient endovascular occlusion of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (M2CAO). Animals were imaged with a nanoScan(®) PET/MRI system at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after M2CAO with a bolus injection of [(11)C]PBR28. In the infarct region, we found a significantly increased uptake of [(11)C]PBR28 on day 4, 7 and 14 compared to day 1 as well as compared to the contralateral cortex. No significant increase was detected in the contralateral cortex during the 14 days of imaging. The activation in the infarct region gradually decreased between day 4 and day 14. In an additional group of animals (n = 26), immunofluorescence studies were performed with antibodies for activated microglia/monocytes (Cd11b), phagocytes (Cd68), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and TSPO. The TSPO immunofluorescence signal indicated reactive microgliosis post injury, corresponding to PET findings. The present clinically relevant animal model and TSPO PET ligand appear to be well suited for studies on neuroinflammation after ischemic stroke.Brain Structure and Function 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0970-y · 4.57 Impact Factor
European Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; 23:S451. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(13)70714-4 · 5.40 Impact Factor