Effect of food preservatives on in situ biofilm formation.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental School and Hospital, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany.
Clinical Oral Investigations (Impact Factor: 2.29). 03/2008; 12(3):203-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-008-0188-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this double-blind, controlled crossover study was to evaluate the influence of food preservatives on in situ dental biofilm growth. Twenty-four volunteers wore appliances with six specimens each of bovine enamel to build up intra-oral biofilms. During three test cycles, the subjects had to put one half of the appliance twice a day in one of the assigned active solutions (0.1% benzoate, BA; 0.1% sorbate, SA or 0.2% chlorhexidine, CHX) and the other into NaCl. After 5 days, the developed biofilms were stained with two fluorescent dyes to visualise vital (green) and dead bacteria (red). Biofilms were scanned by confocal laser scanning microscopy and biofilm thickness (BT) and bacterial vitality (BV%) were calculated. After a washout period of 7 days, a new test cycle was started. The use of SA, BA and CHX resulted in a significantly reduced BT and BV compared to NaCl (p<0.001). Differences between SA and BA were not significant (p>0.05) for both parameters, while CHX showed significantly lower values. Both preservatives showed antibacterial and plaque-inhibiting properties, but not to the extent of CHX. The biofilm model enabled the examination of undisturbed oral biofilm formation influenced by antibacterial components under clinical conditions.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To design a device that allows the formation of in situ oral biofilm with similar characteristics to those from the dental plaque, overcoming the limitations of previous devices. Study Design: The Intraoral Device of Overlaid Disk-holding Splints (IDODS) was designed and manufactured. To test its validity, five healthy adult volunteers wore them for two and four days allowing the biofilm to grow without any type of distortion. After each period, the thickness, vitality and structure of the formed biofilm were measured with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) in combination with a dual fluorescence solution. All volunteers filled out a Likert-type questionnaire to evaluate the device. Results: Mean bacterial vitality in the 2- and 4-day biofilms was 71% and 63%, respectively. Mean thicknesses were 21 μm and 28 μm, respectively. There was predominance in the open and heterogeneous structure whose complexity was ascending as the biofilm matured. The results obtained from the questionnaire were 2/5 in the influence in aesthetics, 3.4/5 in comfort, and 5/5 in ease of maintaining oral hygiene and withdrawal from the oral cavity. Conclusions: A biofilm with optimum characteristics was obtained by IDODS. Its use is associated with good aesthetic and comfort results and is absent of functional limitations, allowing optimal oral hygiene without altering the structure of the in situ oral biofilm.
    01/2015; DOI:10.4317/jced.52093
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    ABSTRACT: The proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Essential Oils (EO) led, in 1879, to their combination with a phenolic based formula to reach a higher potential. This new product was called Listerine®. After that, it gradually acquired more importance as an oral antiseptic until nowadays, when it is considered the most popular phenolic compound used in the oral cavity. Due to this, the number of studies about its mechanism of action has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The antiseptic activity of EO comes from their hydrophobicity, which produces a disturbance in the bacterial membrane that affects diverse cellular compounds causing a cascade effect. One of the ideal characteristics that antiseptics must have is the ability to adhere to the substrate and persist at effective concentrations, which is called substantivity. The purpose of this chapter is to review the previously published studies about the in situ antibacterial activity and substantivity of the EO in different oral micro-niches, as well as presenting our own results in this field. Up to now, there have been no papers published comparing the EO antibacterial activity with that of chlorhexidine (CHX) –the Gold-standard- after a single application, and there are only few cases in which the immediate antibacterial activity of the EO was evaluated. Thus, there are some published papers about the substantivity of EO in the saliva, which concluded that these last ones kept lower bacterial vitality levels than the negative control between 1-5 hours after their application; nevertheless, there are few papers which have studied the in situ antibacterial activity of the EO on structured biofilm and, in those cases, their application was performed ex vivo. What is common to most of the papers is the using of the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) technique combined with a staining solution. This is due to its consideration as an effective technique when analysing both the structure and the bacterial viability in an oral biofilm. Consequently, it seems to be interesting and necessary to continue studying the EO antibacterial activity with CLSM techniques. The methodology should be directed to in situ antiseptic application, and the results obtained should be compared with other antiseptics. Thereby, a more reliable approach about the ability of EO as oral antiseptics could be obtained.
    Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education. Vol 2, Microbiology Book Series #4 edited by A. Méndez-Vilas, 12/2013: chapter In situ substantivity of the essential oils in the oral cavity: pages 1112-1122; Formatex Research Center., ISBN: 978-84-942134-0-3
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the in situ antiplaque effect after 4 days of using of 2 commercial antimicrobial agents in short term on undisturbed plaque-like biofilm. An observer-masked, crossover randomised clinical trial on 15 oral and systemically healthy volunteers between 20-30 years who were randomly and sequentially allocated in the same group which performed 3 interventions in different randomised sequences. The participants wore an appliance in 3 different rinsing periods doing mouthwashes twice a day (1/0/1) with essential oils, 0.2% chlorhexidine or sterile water (negative control). At the end of each 4-day mouthwash period, samples were removed from the appliance. Posteriorly, after bacterial vital staining, samples were analysed using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm after 4 days of applying each of the mouthwashes. The essential oils and the 0.2% chlorhexidine were significantly more effective than the sterile water at reducing bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm. No significant differences were found between the 0.2% chlorhexidine and the essential oils at reducing the bacterial vitality (13.2% vs. 14.7%). However, the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed more reduction than the essential oils in thickness (6.5 μm vs. 10.0 μm; p<0.05) and covering grade by the biofilm (20.0% vs. 54.3%; p<0.001). The essential oils and 0.2% chlorhexidine showed a high antiplaque effect. Although the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed better results with regard to reducing the thickness and covering grade by the biofilm, both antiseptics showed a high and similar antibacterial activity. Daily essential oils or 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes are effective when reducing dental plaque formation in the short term. Although 0.2% chlorhexidine continues to be the "gold standard" in terms of antiplaque effect, essential oils could be considered a reliable alternative. NCT02124655.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117177. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117177 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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May 14, 2014