Hypericin as a marker for determination of tissue viability after radiofrequency ablation in a murine liver tumor model.
ABSTRACT In this proof-of-principle study, the necrosis avid agent hypericin was investigated as a potential indicator for early therapeutic response following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of murine liver tumors. Eight mice bearing intrahepatic RIF-1 tumors were intravenously injected with hypericin 1 h before or 24 h after RFA treatment. Mice were euthanized 24 h after hypericin injection and excised livers were investigated by means of fluoromacroscopic and fluoromicroscopic examinations in combination with conventional histomorphology. Significant differences in hypericin fluorescence were found in necrosis, viable tumor and normal liver tissue in a decreasing order: in necrosis, mean fluorescence densities were about 5 times higher than in viable tumor and approximately 12 times higher than in normal liver (p<0.05). Mean fluorescence densities were not significantly different when hypericin was injected 24 h after or 1 h before RFA treatment (p>0.05). As a conclusion, hypericin features the property to specifically enhance the imaging contrast between necrotic and viable tissues and to non-specifically distinguish viable tumor from normal liver. The results suggest that hypericin offers significant potential in the early assessment of response following necrosis-inducing antineoplastic treatments such as RFA.
- SourceAvailable from: Junjie Li[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hitting the evasive tumor cells proves challenging in targeted cancer therapies. A general and unconventional anticancer approach namely small molecule sequential dual-targeting theragnostic strategy (SMSDTTS) has recently been introduced with the aims to target and debulk the tumor mass, wipe out the residual tumor cells, and meanwhile enable cancer detectability. This dual targeting approach works in two steps for systemic delivery of two naturally derived drugs. First, an anti-tubulin vascular disrupting agent, e.g., combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P), is injected to selectively cut off tumor blood supply and to cause massive necrosis, which nevertheless always leaves peripheral tumor residues. Secondly, a necrosis-avid radiopharmaceutical, namely (131)I-hypericin ((131)I-Hyp), is administered the next day, which accumulates in intratumoral necrosis and irradiates the residual cancer cells with beta particles. Theoretically, this complementary targeted approach may biologically and radioactively ablate solid tumors and reduce the risk of local recurrence, remote metastases, and thus cancer mortality. Meanwhile, the emitted gamma rays facilitate radio-scintigraphy to detect tumors and follow up the therapy, hence a simultaneous theragnostic approach. SMSDTTS has now shown promise from multicenter animal experiments and may demonstrate unique anticancer efficacy in upcoming preliminary clinical trials. In this short review article, information about the two involved agents, the rationale of SMSDTTS, its preclinical antitumor efficacy, multifocal targetability, simultaneous theragnostic property, and toxicities of the dose regimens are summarized. Meanwhile, possible drawbacks, practical challenges and future improvement with SMSDTTS are discussed, which hopefully may help to push forward this strategy from preclinical experiments towards possible clinical applications.Journal of Cancer. 01/2013; 4(2):133-45.
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ABSTRACT: Aim:Hypericin (Hyp) and its radio-derivatives have been investigated in animal models with ischemic heart diseases and malignancies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before radioiodinated Hyp ((123)I-Hyp or (131)I-Hyp) can be considered as a clinically useful drug, vigorous evaluations on its chemotoxicity are necessary. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of a single dose of non-radioactive (127)I-Hyp in normal mice for 24 h and 14 d.Methods:Studies were performed on 132 normal mice. (127)I -Hyp at a clinically relevant dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight and a 100-times higher dose of 10 mg/kg was intravenously injected into 40 mice. The safety aspects of clinical manifestations, serological biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed. In another 72 mice, (127)I-Hyp was administered intravenously at assumed values to bracket the value of LD(50). The rest 20 mice were used in the control groups.Results:At 24 h and 14 d following the injection of (127)I -Hyp at either 0.1 or 10 mg/kg, all mice tolerated well without mortality or any observable treatment-related symptoms. No significant differences were found in blood biochemical parameters between the test and control groups. All organs presented normal appearances upon histopathological inspection. The value of LD(50) of (127)I-Hyp in mice through intravenous injection was 20.26 mg/kg, with the 95% confidence interval between 18.90 and 21.55 mg/kg.Conclusion:The current study reveals a broad safety range of (127)I-Hyp, which not only supports the use of (123)I-Hyp or (131)I-Hyp in the necrosis targeting theragnostic strategy, but also serves as a valuable reference for exploring other possible applications for iodinated Hyp.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 10/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [(123)I]iodohypericin, [(124)I]iodohypericin, and [(131)I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin.Theranostics 01/2013; 3(9):667-676. · 7.81 Impact Factor