Simulation results are presented to illustrate the main features of what we believe is a new photolithographic technique, evanescent interferometric lithography (EIL). The technique exploits interference between resonantly enhanced, evanescently decaying diffracted orders to create a frequency-doubled intensity pattern in the near field of a metallic diffraction grating. It is shown that the intensity in a grating's near field can be enhanced significantly compared with conventional interferometric lithography. Contrast in the interference pattern is also increased, owing to a reduction in the zeroth-order transmission near resonance. The pattern's depth of field reduces as the wavelength is increased beyond cutoff of the first-order diffracted components, and results are presented showing the trade-offs that can be made between depth of field and intensity enhancement. Examples are given for a 270-nm-period grating embedded in material with refractive index n = 1.6 and illuminated with wavelengths near 450 nm. Under these conditions it is predicted that high-intensity, high-contrast patterns with 135-nm period can be formed in photoresists more than 50 nm thick.
"Therefore a shorter wavelength light source and corresponding photo-resist materials are required in order to achieve fine resolution enough for the subwavelength structure. Luo and Ishihara improved an evanescent interference lithography proposed by Blaikie and McNab  and demonstrated subwavelength structure prepared by surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique (SPRINT), which can overcome the diffraction limit due to large wavevector inherent to the plasmonic nature . Although they used metallic periodic structure in order to excite surface plasmon, maskless interference lithography using attenuated total reflection geometry is also demonstrated to form fine structures in a photo-resist . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explore possibilities of waveguide-mode interference lithography (WMIL)
technique for high contrast subwavelength structures in the visible region.
Selecting an appropriate waveguide-mode, we demonstrate high contrast resist
mask patterns for the first time. TM1 mode in the waveguide is shown to be
useful for providing a three-dimensional structure whose cross section is
checkerboard pattern. Applying our WMIL technique, we demonstrate 1D, 2D and 3D
subwavelength resist patterns that are widely used for the fabrication of
metamteterials in the visible region. In addition to the resist patterns, we
demonstrate a resonance at 1.9 eV for a split tube structure experimentally.
"But they have stringent limitations with respect to certain materials and effectiveness applies only for certain ambient conditions. Evanescent wave lithography (EWL) is one of the near field interference lithography technique to achieve nano-scale feature at low cost [Blaikie & McNab, 2001; Chua et al., 2007]. It can create a shorter wavelength intensity pattern in the near field of diffraction grating or prism when two resonantly enhanced, evanescently decaying wave superimposed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recently proposed novel plasmonic lithographic concept and methodology based on the excitation of gap modes in a metal particle-surface system is discussed in this chapter. The
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photocontrol of molecular alignment is an exceptionally-intelligent and useful strategy. It enables us to control optical coefficients, peripheral molecular alignments, surface relief structure, and actuation of substances by means of photoirradiation. Azobenzene-containing polymers and functionalized liquid crystalline polymers are well-known photocontrollable materials. In this paper, we introduce recent applications of these materials in the fields of mechanics, self-organized structuring, mass transport, optics, and photonics. The concepts in each application are explained based on the mechanisms of photocontrol. The interesting natures of the photocontrollable materials and the conceptual applications will stimulate novel ideas for future research and development in this field.
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