HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers.
ABSTRACT HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) and HIV-specific cellular immunity have been described in highly exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals, but well controlled studies have not been performed. We performed a prospective, nested case-control study to examine the association of genital IgA and systemic cellular immune responses with subsequent HIV acquisition in high-risk Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs).
A randomized trial of monthly antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted disease/HIV infection was performed from 1998 to 2002 in HIV-uninfected Kenyan FSWs. After the completion of trial, FSWs who had acquired HIV (cases) were matched 1: 4 with persistently uninfected controls based on study arm, duration of HIV-seronegative follow-up, and time of cohort enrolment. Blinded investigators assayed the ability at enrolment of genital IgA to neutralize primary HIV isolates as well as systemic HIV-specific cellular IFNgamma-modified enzyme-linked immunospot and proliferative responses.
The study cohort comprised 113 FSWs: 24 cases who acquired HIV and 89 matched controls. Genital HIV-neutralizing IgA was associated with reduced HIV acquisition (P = 0.003), as was HIV-specific proliferation (P = 0.002), and these associations were additive. HIV-specific IFNgamma production did not differ between case and control groups. In multivariable analysis, HIV-neutralizing IgA and HIV-specific proliferation each remained independently associated with lack of HIV acquisition. Genital herpes (HSV2) was associated with increased HIV risk and with reduced detection of HIV-neutralizing IgA.
Genital HIV-neutralizing IgA and systemic HIV-specific proliferative responses, assayed by blinded investigators, were prospectively associated with HIV nonacquisition. The induction of these immune responses may be an important goal for HIV vaccines.
SourceAvailable from: Burc Barin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Methods and Findings The Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) enrolled participants into three Phase 1 trials of preventive HIV candidate vaccines in 2011–2012 at two clinical research centers in Nairobi. After informed consent to a mucosal sub-study, participants were asked to undergo collection of mucosal secretions (saliva, oral fluids, semen, cervico-vaginal and rectal), but could opt out of any collection at any visit. Specimens were collected at baseline and two additional time points. A tolerability questionnaire was administered at the final sub-study visit. Of 105 trial participants, 27 of 34 women (79%) and 62 of 71 men (87%) enrolled in the mucosal sub-study. Nearly all sub-study participants gave saliva and oral fluids at all visits. Semen was collected from about half the participating men (47–48%) at all visits. Cervico-vaginal secretions were collected by Softcup from about two thirds of women (63%) at baseline, increasing to 78% at the following visits, with similar numbers for cervical secretion collection by Merocel sponge; about half of women (52%) gave cervico-vaginal samples at all visits. Rectal secretions were collected with Merocel sponge from about a quarter of both men and women (24%) at all 3 visits, with 16% of men and 19% of women giving rectal samples at all visits. Conclusions Repeated mucosal sampling in clinical trial participants in Kenya is feasible, with a good proportion of participants consenting to most sampling methods with the exception of rectal samples. Experienced staff members of both sexes and trained counselors with standardized messaging may improve acceptance of rectal sampling.PLoS ONE 10/2014; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110228 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The foreskin is the site of most HIV acquisition in uncircumcised heterosexual men. Although HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) uncircumcised men demonstrate HIV-neutralizing IgA and increased antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the foreskin prepuce, no prospective studies have examined the mucosal immune correlates of HIV acquisition.PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10(10):e1004416. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004416 · 8.14 Impact Factor