Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been performed in adults as a treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting in patients who have failed medical treatment, but has not been used in children.
Nine patients with chronic nausea and vomiting with a mean age of 14 years were evaluated for temporary GES. All 9 patients subsequently underwent placement of a temporary followed by permanent GES device. Symptoms were recorded at baseline, after temporary GES, and then after permanent GES using a Likert scale for gastroparesis. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired Student's t test.
At baseline, all patients were symptomatic and most had delayed solid gastric emptying. As a group, there was a significant improvement in combined symptoms score (P = .04), nausea (P = .039), and vomiting (P = .0016). Gastric emptying and electrogastrogram values did not change significantly. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 42 months, with 7 of the 9 patients reporting sustained improvement in symptoms and improved quality of life.
Gastric electrical stimulation can be successfully applied to adolescents with intractable nausea and gastroparesis symptoms who fail medical therapy. There is a significant improvement in symptoms over a prolonged period, and there are no adverse effects of the GES. Long-term efficacy of this therapy in children needs to be established.
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"This intervention is based on the laparoscopic implantation of two electrodes - connected to a pacemaker - into the seromuscular layer of the stomach. Two studies in children with gastroparesis demonstrated that gastric stimulation alleviated their symptoms and improved quality of life [85,86]. Despite the promising results the long-term efficacy and safety of this modality need to be established. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Historically, gastroparesis is characterized by delayed gastric emptying of fluids and/or solids without evidence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. To provide a thorough, evidence-based overview of the diagnosis, treatment, outcome and future advances for gastroparesis in children, a web search (PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Clinical Evidence) was performed. Original articles and reviews were identified, examined and included as appropriate. The prevalence of gastroparesis is vague in adults and unknown in children. It is suspected on the presence of symptoms indicating gastric dysmotility (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, failure to thrive, weight loss) and is confirmed on the demonstration of delayed gastric emptying. It can be assessed with various methods from which gastric emptying scintigraphy of a radiolabeled solid meal is considered as the golden standard. Therapeutic approaches include: dietary modifications, medical treatment (prokinetics, antiemetics, intrapyloric injection of botulinum toxin, enteral feeds via jejunostomy, total parenteral nutrition) and surgical interventions (laparoscopic placement of gastric pacemaker) aiming at alleviating symptoms and maintaining optimal nutritional status. Gastroparesis in children can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Specific protocols for the evaluation of gastric emptying and for a stepwise management are required to optimise future outcomes.
Annals of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 26(3):204-211.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for gastroparesis has been in use for more than a decade. Multiple publications, consisting almost entirely of open label single center studies, reported a beneficial effect on symptoms, quality of life and nutritional status. Some predictors of better response to GES have been lately identified, primarily diabetic etiology and nausea and vomiting as the predominant symptoms. However, individual response to GES remains difficult to predict. The mechanism of action of GES remains poorly understood. Stimulation parameters approved in clinical practice do not regulate gastric slow wave activity and have inconsistent effect on gastric emptying. Despite such limitations, gastric electrical stimulation remains a helpful intervention in some patients with severe gastroparesis who fail to respond to medical therapy.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 04/2012; 18(2):131-7. DOI:10.5056/jnm.2012.18.2.131 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The definition of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. Regurgitation is defined
as passage of refluxed gastric contents into the mouth.Vomiting is the expulsion of gastric contents from the mouth. Many
episodes of gastroesophageal reflux occur in healthy infants and children and are considered “sphysiologic.’s Such episodes
are brief and either asymptomatic or cause mild regurgitation or occasional vomiting.1 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when episodes of GER produce symptoms and complications.