Differential parental transmission of markers in RUNX2 among cleft case-parent trios from four populations.
ABSTRACT Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence around 1 in 700 live births. The Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene has been suggested as a candidate gene for CL/P based largely on mouse models; however, no human studies have focused on RUNX2 as a risk factor for CL/P. This study examines the association between markers in RUNX2 and isolated, nonsyndromic CL/P using a case-parent trio design, while considering parent-of-origin effects. Case-parent trios from four populations (77 from Maryland, 146 from Taiwan, 35 from Singapore, and 40 from Korea) were genotyped for 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RUNX2 gene. We performed the transmission disequilibrium test on individual SNPs. Parent-of-origin effects were assessed using the transmission asymmetry test and the parent-of-origin likelihood ratio test (PO-LRT). When all trios were combined, the transmission asymmetry test revealed a block of 11 SNPs showing excess maternal transmission significant at the P<0.01 level, plus one SNP (rs1934328) showing excess paternal transmission (P=0.002). For the 11 SNPs showing excess maternal transmission, odds ratios of being transmitted to the case from the mother ranged between 3.00 and 4.00. The parent-of-origin likelihood ratio tests for equality of maternal and paternal transmission were significant for three individual SNPs (rs910586, rs2819861, and rs1934328). Thus, RUNX2 appears to influence risk of CL/P through a parent-of-origin effect with excess maternal transmission.