AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for survival in chronic hypoxia.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Mayer Building 440, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.28). 06/2008; 370(2):230-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.03.056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to interrogate cancer cell survival during long-term hypoxic stress. Two systems with relevance to carcinogenesis were employed: Fully transformed BJ cells and a renal carcinoma cell line (786-0). The dynamic of AMPK activity was consistent with a prosurvival role during chronic hypoxia. This was further supported by the effects of AMPK agonists and antagonists (AICAR and compound C). Expression of a dominant-negative AMPK alpha resulted in a decreased ATP level and significantly compromised survival in hypoxia. Dose-dependent prosurvival effects of rapamycin were consistent with mTOR inhibition being a critical downstream mediator of AMPK in persistent low oxygen.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nervous systems are energetically expensive to operate and maintain. Both synaptic and action potential signalling require a significant investment to maintain ion homeostasis. We have investigated the tuning of neural performance following a brief period of anoxia in a well-characterized visual pathway in the locust, the LGMD/DCMD looming motion-sensitive circuit. We hypothesised that the energetic cost of signalling can be dynamically modified by cellular mechanisms in response to metabolic stress. We examined whether recovery from anoxia resulted in a decrease in excitability of the electrophysiological properties in the DCMD neuron. We further examined the effect of these modifications on behavioural output. We show that recovery from anoxia affects metabolic rate, flight steering behaviour, and action potential properties. The effects of anoxia on action potentials can be mimicked by activation of the AMPK metabolic pathway. We suggest this is evidence of a coordinated cellular mechanism to reduce neural energetic demand following an anoxic stress. Together, this represents a dynamically-regulated means to link the energetic demands of neural signaling with the environmental constraints faced by the whole animal.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88570. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a disease arising from both genetic and epigenetic modifications of DNA that contribute to changes in gene expression in the cell. Genetic modifications include loss or amplification of DNA, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as well as gene mutations. Epigenetic changes in cancer are generally thought to be brought about by alterations in DNA and histone modifications that lead to the silencing of tumour suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenic genes. Other consequences that result from epigenetic changes, such as inappropriate expression or repression of some genes in the wrong cellular context, can also result in the alteration of control and physiological systems such that a normal cell becomes tumorigenic. Excessive levels of the enzymes that act as epigenetic modifiers have been reported as markers of aggressive breast cancer and are associated with metastatic progression. It is likely that this is a common contributor to the recurrence and spread of the disease. The emphasis on genetic changes, for example in genome-wide association studies and increasingly in whole genome sequencing analyses of tumours, has resulted in the importance of epigenetic changes having less attention until recently. Epigenetic alterations at both the DNA and histone level are increasingly being recognised as playing a role in tumourigenesis. Recent studies have found that distinct subgroups of poor-prognosis tumours lack genetic alterations but are epigenetically deregulated, pointing to the important role that epigenetic modifications and/or their modifiers may play in cancer. In this review, we highlight the multitude of epigenetic changes that can occur and will discuss how deregulation of epigenetic modifiers contributes to cancer progression. We also discuss the off-target effects that epigenetic modifiers may have, notably the effects that histone modifiers have on non-histone proteins that can modulate protein expression and activity, as well as the role of hypoxia in epigenetic regulation.
    Cell & Bioscience. 08/2014; 4(45).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: EGCG, catechins in green tea, is a kind of phytochemical. Through the regulation of signal pathways, EGCG has been known to show anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects in cells. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of EGCG through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathways, including hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-). The experiments were performed in B16F10 melanoma cells in a hypoxic state. AMPK is activated by ATP consumption such as nutrient deficiency, exercise, heat shock, etc. The activated AMPK that plays an important role as an energy sensor inhibits proliferation of cancer cells, as well as inducing apoptosis. HIF-, the primary transcriptional regulator of the response to oxygen deprivation, plays a critical role in modulating tumor growth and angiogenesis in a hypoxic state. The apoptotic effects of EGCG were studied in B16F10 cells in a hypoxic state. The results show that EGCG inhibits the transcriptional activity of HIF- and induces apoptosis. These observations suggest that EGCG may exert inhibitory effects of angiogenesis and control tumor cell growth in hypoxic melanoma cells.
    Journal of Life Science. 02/2011; 21(2).

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014