Pyrazolo-pyrimidines: a novel heterocyclic scaffold for potent and selective p38 alpha inhibitors.
ABSTRACT The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of p38 alpha MAP kinase inhibitors based on a pyrazolo-pyrimidine scaffold are described. These studies led to the identification of compound 2x as a potent and selective inhibitor of p38 alpha MAP kinase with excellent cellular potency toward the inhibition of TNFalpha production. Compound 2x was highly efficacious in vivo in inhibiting TNFalpha production in an acute murine model of TNFalpha production. X-ray co-crystallography of a pyrazolo-pyrimidine analog 2b bound to unphosphorylated p38 alpha is also disclosed.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, some pyrazolopyrimidin–6(7H)–ones and tricyclic 8–oxo–dihydrooxazolopyrazolopyrimidin–9–ium chloride derivatives were synthesized and tested for anti–inflammatory and analgesic activity and assessment of acute ulcerogenic propensity as compared to the standard drug indomethacin. Some of the compounds (2c–2e; 3c–3e) showed appreciable antiinflammatory–analgesic activity at the evaluated equimolar dose with lower ulcerogenic profile when compared with the standard. Compounds containing fused dihydrooxazolo ring (3e) system were found to be more active than their corresponding congener pyrazolopyrimidine.Arabian Journal of Chemistry 01/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR leverages prior knowledge from earlier structures to facilitate ligand placement in the current structure.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 01/2014; 70(Pt 1):134-43. · 12.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new series of phosphodiesterase-9 (PDE9) inhibitors that contain a scaffold of 6-amino-pyrazolopyrimidinone have been discovered by a combination of structure-based design and computational docking. This procedure significantly saved the load of chemical synthesis and is an effective method for the discovery of inhibitors. The best compound 28 has an IC(50) of 21 nM and 3.3 μM, respectively, for PDE9 and PDE5 and about 3 orders of magnitude of selectivity against other PDE families. The crystal structure of the PDE9 catalytic domain in complex with 28 has been determined and shows a hydrogen bond between 28 and Tyr424. This hydrogen bond may account for the 860-fold selectivity of 28 against PDE1B, in comparison with about 30-fold selectivity of BAY73-6691. Thus, our studies suggest that Tyr424, a unique residue of PDE8 and PDE9, is a potential target for improvement of selectivity of PDE9 inhibitors.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; 55(19):8549-58. · 5.61 Impact Factor