Histopathological characteristics of specific organs express condition, and represent time-integrated impacts on the organism stemming from alterations at lower levels of biological organisation. As integrative parameters, histochemical investigations have proved to be sensitive tools to detect effects of chemical compounds. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the tissues of mussels collected at a PAH contaminated site compared to a reference site using histopathological and histochemical parameters: lipofuscin (LF) accumulation in mussel digestive gland, and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), and using additional information provided by body burden analysis to compare the sensitivity of these parameters. The histochemical measurements for both LF and LMS gave a clear indication of a high level of stress in animals from the PAH contaminated site. This LF accumulation in lysosomes is the result of peroxidation of autophagocytosed proteins associated with protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged organelles. These measurements were able to detect the effects of PAHs, and showed a strong relationship with the body burden results.
"These alterations are sensitive to a wide range of contaminants (Au, 2004), and they indicate the status of target tissues, providing a general view of the damage received by molluscs . Analysis of histopathological alterations in the tissues of native mussels (Aarab et al., 2008; Wedderburn et al., 2000) and transplanted clams (Morales-Caselles et al., 2008; Nasci et al., 1999) are of increasing interest in marine pollution monitoring because of their sensitivity, availability and commercial relevance. The histopathological analysis has shown to be a good method for in situ assessment of toxic effects in the short and long term (Handy et al., 2002; Morales-Caselles et al., 2008; Watermann et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-five intervention studies were meta-analytically examined regarding the effect of including relatives in schizophrenia treatment. The studies investigated family intervention programs to educate relatives and help them cope better with the patient's illness. The patient's relapse rate, measured by either a significant worsening of symptoms or rehospitalization in the first years after hospitalization, served as the main study criterion. The main result of the meta-analysis was that the relapse rate can be reduced by 20 percent if relatives of schizophrenia patients are included in the treatment. If family interventions continued for longer than 3 months, the effect was particularly marked. Furthermore, different types of comprehensive family interventions have similar results. The bifocal approach, which offers psychosocial support to relatives and schizophrenia patients in addition to medical treatment, was clearly superior to the medication-only standard treatment. The effects of family interventions and comprehensive patient interventions were comparable, but the combination did not yield significantly better results than did a treatment approach, which focused on either the patient or the family. This meta-analysis indicates that psychoeducational interventions are essential to schizophrenia treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological impact of a treated produced water (PW) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussel health status was assessed using an integrated biomarker approach in combination with chemical analysis of both water (with SPMDs), and mussel tissues. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity, neutral lipid accumulation, catalase activity, micronuclei formation, lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and haemocytes, cell-type composition in digestive gland epithelium, and the integrity of the digestive gland tissue were measured after 5 week exposure to 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% PW. The suite of biomarkers employed were sensitive to treated PW exposure with significant sublethal responses found at 0.01-0.5% PW, even though individual chemical compounds of PW were at extremely low concentrations in both water and mussel tissues. The study highlights the benefits of an integrated biomarker approach for determining the potential effects of exposure to complex mixtures at low concentrations. Biomarkers were integrated in the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index.
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