Histopathology alterations and histochemistry measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected offshore from an aluminium smelter industry (Norway).
ABSTRACT Histopathological characteristics of specific organs express condition, and represent time-integrated impacts on the organism stemming from alterations at lower levels of biological organisation. As integrative parameters, histochemical investigations have proved to be sensitive tools to detect effects of chemical compounds. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the tissues of mussels collected at a PAH contaminated site compared to a reference site using histopathological and histochemical parameters: lipofuscin (LF) accumulation in mussel digestive gland, and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), and using additional information provided by body burden analysis to compare the sensitivity of these parameters. The histochemical measurements for both LF and LMS gave a clear indication of a high level of stress in animals from the PAH contaminated site. This LF accumulation in lysosomes is the result of peroxidation of autophagocytosed proteins associated with protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged organelles. These measurements were able to detect the effects of PAHs, and showed a strong relationship with the body burden results.
SourceAvailable from: Claas Hiebenthal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acidification of the World’s oceans may directly impact reproduction, performance and shell formation of marine calcifying organisms. In addition, since shell production is costly and stress in general draws on an organism’s energy budget, shell growth and stability of bivalves should indirectly be affected by environmental stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of warming and acidification leads to increased physiological stress (lipofuscin accumulation and mortality) and affects the performance [shell growth, shell breaking force, condition index (Ci)] of young Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica from the Baltic Sea. We cultured the bivalves in a fully-crossed 2-factorial experimental setup (seawater (sw) pCO2 levels “low”, “medium” and “high” for both species, temperature levels 7.5, 10, 16, 20 and 25 °C for M. edulis and 7.5, 10 and 16 °C for A. islandica) for 13 weeks in summer. Mytilus edulis and A. islandica appeared to tolerate wide ranges of sw temperature and pCO2. Lipofuscin accumulation of M. edulis increased with temperature while the Ci decreased, but shell growth of the mussels only sharply decreased while its mortality increased between 20 and 25 °C. In A. islandica, lipofuscin accumulation increased with temperature, whereas the Ci, shell growth and shell breaking force decreased. The pCO2 treatment had only marginal effects on the measured parameters of both bivalve species. Shell growth of both bivalve species was not impaired by under-saturation of the sea water with respect to aragonite and calcite. Furthermore, independently of water temperatures shell breaking force of both species and shell growth of A. islandica remained unaffected by the applied elevated sw pCO2 for several months. Only at the highest temperature (25 °C), growth arrest of M. edulis was recorded at the high sw pCO2 treatment and the Ci of M. edulis was slightly higher at the medium sw pCO2 treatment than at the low and high sw pCO2 treatments. The only effect of elevated sw pCO2 on A. islandica was an increase in lipofuscin accumulation at the high sw pCO2 treatment compared to the medium sw pCO2 treatment. Our results show that, despite this robustness, growth of both M. edulis and A. islandica can be reduced if sw temperatures remain high for several weeks in summer. As large body size constitutes an escape from crab and sea star predation, this can make bivalves presumably more vulnerable to predation—with possible negative consequences on population growth. In M. edulis, but not in A. islandica, this effect is amplified by elevated sw pCO2. We follow that combined effects of elevated sw pCO2 and ocean warming might cause shifts in future Western Baltic Sea community structures and ecosystem services; however, only if predators or other interacting species do not suffer as strong from these stressors.Marine Biology 01/2013; 160:2073–2087. DOI:10.1007/s00227-012-2080-9 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using a comprehensive approach, intertidal, near- and offshore sites in the German Bight were analysed for their environmental quality by assessing the health of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). During a ten month sampling period mussels were studied with a set of biomarkers comprising lysosomal membrane stability and accumulation of lipofuscin, supplemented by biomarkers indicating nutritional status such as neutral lipids and glycogen in the cells of the digestive gland. Data were analysed in relation to sex, gonadal status, condition index and for the presence of parasites, to determine the overall health status of mussels at the respective sites. Mussels from all sites showed clear signs of stress, indicating an inferior environmental quality throughout the southern German Bight. Further, habitat characteristics such as inundation time and growing on- or off-bottom, as well as seasonal factors, can clearly influence the response of biomarkers in mussels exposed to similar levels of chemical environmental stress.Marine environmental research 01/2013; 95. DOI:10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.12.009 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), fragmented-apoptotic (FA) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells were analyzed in Mytilus edulis gills and in kidney erythrocytes of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua collected from three boreal locations in the North Atlantic, representing the pol-lution gradient originating from aluminium smelter industry (Mosjøen, Norway). Th e highest MN, NB, FA and BN values were measured in mussels from the most polluted site, Halsøy, which is located close to the aluminium smelter works. In Halsøy, a 5.2-fold increase (p < 0.0001) in MN, a 3.4-fold increase in fragmented-apoptotic cells (p = 0.0001), a 1.8-fold increase in nuclear buds (p = 0.0002) and a 1.7-fold increase in bi-nucleated cells (p = 0.0524) was found as compared to the reference site. A diff erence in the incidence of MN (p = 0.0052) and FA (p = 0.0003) were found in mussels from the reference and an in-termediate contaminated site (Hundålbukta). A signifi cant diff erence in MN (p = 0.0087) and NB (p = 0.0186) frequencies were observed in fi sh kidney immature erythrocytes from Halsøy and Hundålbukta sites.12/2010; 56(3):116-123. DOI:10.2478/v10055-010-0017-5