Histopathology alterations and histochemistry measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected offshore from an aluminium smelter industry (Norway).
ABSTRACT Histopathological characteristics of specific organs express condition, and represent time-integrated impacts on the organism stemming from alterations at lower levels of biological organisation. As integrative parameters, histochemical investigations have proved to be sensitive tools to detect effects of chemical compounds. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the tissues of mussels collected at a PAH contaminated site compared to a reference site using histopathological and histochemical parameters: lipofuscin (LF) accumulation in mussel digestive gland, and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), and using additional information provided by body burden analysis to compare the sensitivity of these parameters. The histochemical measurements for both LF and LMS gave a clear indication of a high level of stress in animals from the PAH contaminated site. This LF accumulation in lysosomes is the result of peroxidation of autophagocytosed proteins associated with protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged organelles. These measurements were able to detect the effects of PAHs, and showed a strong relationship with the body burden results.
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ABSTRACT: Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied.Marine pollution bulletin 02/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Native and caged mussels were used in combination for the monitoring of pollution biological effects through an integrative biomarker approach. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were deployed in cages in two well-known model localities with different pollution levels in the Basque coast. After 3 weeks caged and native mussels were collected from each site and a suite of effect and exposure biomarkers (from molecular/cellular to organism level) was applied and chemical contaminants (metals, PAHs, PCBs, phthalates and nonylphenol ethoxylates) were analytically determined. Integrative biomarker indices and pollutant indices of tissues were calculated. Several biomarkers used herein responded similarly in native and caged mussels, whereas others exhibited significant differences. Overall, biomarkers in-a-suite depicted site-specific profiles useful for the diagnostic of mussel health status and therefore for ecosystem health assessment in marine pollution biomonitoring. On the other hand, biomarkers and bioaccumulation exhibited different response times, which was especially evident when comparing biomarker and pollutant indices of tissues. The suite of biomarkers was more sensitive after caging (short-term response), whereas tissue pollutant concentrations were more sensitive in native mussels (long-term response). Thus, the combination of native and caged mussels is highly recommended to monitor biological effects of pollution in mussels through the integrative biomarker approach, especially in chronically polluted sites.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2013; 136-137C:32-48. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acidification of the World’s oceans may directly impact reproduction, performance and shell formation of marine calcifying organisms. In addition, since shell production is costly and stress in general draws on an organism’s energy budget, shell growth and stability of bivalves should indirectly be affected by environmental stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of warming and acidification leads to increased physiological stress (lipofuscin accumulation and mortality) and affects the performance [shell growth, shell breaking force, condition index (Ci)] of young Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica from the Baltic Sea. We cultured the bivalves in a fully-crossed 2-factorial experimental setup (seawater (sw) pCO2 levels “low”, “medium” and “high” for both species, temperature levels 7.5, 10, 16, 20 and 25 °C for M. edulis and 7.5, 10 and 16 °C for A. islandica) for 13 weeks in summer. Mytilus edulis and A. islandica appeared to tolerate wide ranges of sw temperature and pCO2. Lipofuscin accumulation of M. edulis increased with temperature while the Ci decreased, but shell growth of the mussels only sharply decreased while its mortality increased between 20 and 25 °C. In A. islandica, lipofuscin accumulation increased with temperature, whereas the Ci, shell growth and shell breaking force decreased. The pCO2 treatment had only marginal effects on the measured parameters of both bivalve species. Shell growth of both bivalve species was not impaired by under-saturation of the sea water with respect to aragonite and calcite. Furthermore, independently of water temperatures shell breaking force of both species and shell growth of A. islandica remained unaffected by the applied elevated sw pCO2 for several months. Only at the highest temperature (25 °C), growth arrest of M. edulis was recorded at the high sw pCO2 treatment and the Ci of M. edulis was slightly higher at the medium sw pCO2 treatment than at the low and high sw pCO2 treatments. The only effect of elevated sw pCO2 on A. islandica was an increase in lipofuscin accumulation at the high sw pCO2 treatment compared to the medium sw pCO2 treatment. Our results show that, despite this robustness, growth of both M. edulis and A. islandica can be reduced if sw temperatures remain high for several weeks in summer. As large body size constitutes an escape from crab and sea star predation, this can make bivalves presumably more vulnerable to predation—with possible negative consequences on population growth. In M. edulis, but not in A. islandica, this effect is amplified by elevated sw pCO2. We follow that combined effects of elevated sw pCO2 and ocean warming might cause shifts in future Western Baltic Sea community structures and ecosystem services; however, only if predators or other interacting species do not suffer as strong from these stressors.Marine Biology 01/2013; 160:2073–2087. · 2.47 Impact Factor