Histopathology alterations and histochemistry measurements in mussel, Mytilus edulis collected offshore from an aluminium smelter industry (Norway).
ABSTRACT Histopathological characteristics of specific organs express condition, and represent time-integrated impacts on the organism stemming from alterations at lower levels of biological organisation. As integrative parameters, histochemical investigations have proved to be sensitive tools to detect effects of chemical compounds. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the tissues of mussels collected at a PAH contaminated site compared to a reference site using histopathological and histochemical parameters: lipofuscin (LF) accumulation in mussel digestive gland, and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), and using additional information provided by body burden analysis to compare the sensitivity of these parameters. The histochemical measurements for both LF and LMS gave a clear indication of a high level of stress in animals from the PAH contaminated site. This LF accumulation in lysosomes is the result of peroxidation of autophagocytosed proteins associated with protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged organelles. These measurements were able to detect the effects of PAHs, and showed a strong relationship with the body burden results.
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ABSTRACT: Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied.Marine pollution bulletin 02/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using a comprehensive approach, intertidal, near- and offshore sites in the German Bight were analysed for their environmental quality by assessing the health of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). During a ten month sampling period mussels were studied with a set of biomarkers comprising lysosomal membrane stability and accumulation of lipofuscin, supplemented by biomarkers indicating nutritional status such as neutral lipids and glycogen in the cells of the digestive gland. Data were analysed in relation to sex, gonadal status, condition index and for the presence of parasites, to determine the overall health status of mussels at the respective sites. Mussels from all sites showed clear signs of stress, indicating an inferior environmental quality throughout the southern German Bight. Further, habitat characteristics such as inundation time and growing on- or off-bottom, as well as seasonal factors, can clearly influence the response of biomarkers in mussels exposed to similar levels of chemical environmental stress.Marine environmental research 01/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Native and caged mussels were used in combination for the monitoring of pollution biological effects through an integrative biomarker approach. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were deployed in cages in two well-known model localities with different pollution levels in the Basque coast. After 3 weeks caged and native mussels were collected from each site and a suite of effect and exposure biomarkers (from molecular/cellular to organism level) was applied and chemical contaminants (metals, PAHs, PCBs, phthalates and nonylphenol ethoxylates) were analytically determined. Integrative biomarker indices and pollutant indices of tissues were calculated. Several biomarkers used herein responded similarly in native and caged mussels, whereas others exhibited significant differences. Overall, biomarkers in-a-suite depicted site-specific profiles useful for the diagnostic of mussel health status and therefore for ecosystem health assessment in marine pollution biomonitoring. On the other hand, biomarkers and bioaccumulation exhibited different response times, which was especially evident when comparing biomarker and pollutant indices of tissues. The suite of biomarkers was more sensitive after caging (short-term response), whereas tissue pollutant concentrations were more sensitive in native mussels (long-term response). Thus, the combination of native and caged mussels is highly recommended to monitor biological effects of pollution in mussels through the integrative biomarker approach, especially in chronically polluted sites.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2013; 136-137C:32-48. · 3.12 Impact Factor