Neuroprotective role of minocycline in co-cultures of human fetal neurons and microglia.
ABSTRACT Bacterial infections during pregnancy often result in premature birth and neonatal white matter damage. During these infections, microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, undergo activation and contribute to further neuronal damage of the CNS. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline antibiotic, inhibits microglial activation and protects neurons in rodents but data about its effects on human cells are limited. We studied the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of minocycline in either purified cell cultures or co-cultures of microglia and neurons from human fetal brain during inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In neuron/microglial co-cultures, minocycline treatment prevented activation and proliferation of microglia and protected neurons as demonstrated by decreased neuronal cell death and a shift of Bcl-2 family proteins toward anti-apoptotic ratio. Notably, neither minocycline nor LPS had an effect on neurons in purified neuronal cultures. The ability of minocycline to regulate activation of human fetal microglia might be relevant in therapies used towards treating neonatal CNS infections.
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal brain damage is one of the leading causes of life long disability. This damage could be hypoxic-ischemic, inflammatory, or both. This mini-review discusses different interventions aiming at minimizing inflammatory processes in the neonatal brain, both before and after insult. Current options of anti-inflammatory measures for neonates remain quite limited. We describe current anti-inflammatory intervention strategies such as avoiding perinatal infection and inflammation, and reducing exposure to inflammatory processes. We describe the known effects of anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids, antibiotics, and indomethacin, and the possible anti-inflammatory role of other substances such as IL-1 receptor antagonists, erythropoietin, caffeine, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor, and melatonin as well as endogenous protectors, and genetic regulation of inflammation. If successful, these may decrease mortality and long-term morbidity among term and pre-term infants.Frontiers in Pediatrics 01/2014; 2:30.
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ABSTRACT: We show here that a mild sterile inflammation induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a neuron/astrocyte/microglial cortical network, modulates neuronal excitability and can initiate long-duration burst events resembling epileptiform seizures, a recognized feature of various central nervous neurodegenerative, neurological and acute systemic diseases associated with neuroinflammation. To study this action, we simultaneously analyzed the reverberating bursting activity of a hundred neurons by using in vitro multi-electrode array methods. ∼5 h after LPS application, we observed a net increase in the average number of spikes elicited in engaged cells and within each burst, but no changes neither in spike waveforms nor in burst rate. This effect was characterized by a slow, twofold exponential increase of the burst duration and the appearance of rarely occurring long burst events that were never seen during control recordings. These changes and the time-course of microglia-released proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were blocked by pre-treatment with 50 nM minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory agent which was inactive when applied alone. Assay experiments also revealed that application of 60 pM exogenous TNF-α after 12-15 h, produced non-washable changes of neuronal excitability, completely different from those induced by LPS, suggesting that TNF-α release alone was not responsible for our observed findings. Our results indicate that the link between neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability can be unveiled by studying the long-term activity of in vitro neuronal/astrocyte/microglial networks.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:361. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered morphine (10-20 µg), DAMGO (1-2 µg) and U50,488H (25-50 µg) were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10-20 µg), deltorphin II (1.5-15 µg) and SNC80 (10-20 µg) administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR), further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104420. · 3.53 Impact Factor