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Smolen, J. S. et al. Effect of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition with tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (OPTION study): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet 371, 987-997

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 03/2008; 371(9617):987-97. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60453-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interleukin 6 is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis via its broad effects on immune and inflammatory responses. Our aim was to assess the therapeutic effects of blocking interleukin 6 by inhibition of the interleukin-6 receptor with tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group phase III study, 623 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly assigned with an interactive voice response system, stratified by site with a randomisation list provided by the study sponsor, to receive tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (n=205), tocilizumab 4 mg/kg (214), or placebo (204) intravenously every 4 weeks, with methotrexate at stable pre-study doses (10-25 mg/week). Rescue therapy with tocilizumab 8 mg/kg was offered at week 16 to patients with less than 20% improvement in both swollen and tender joint counts. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with 20% improvement in signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20 response) at week 24. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00106548.
The intention-to-treat analysis population consisted of 622 patients: one patient in the 4 mg/kg group did not receive study treatment and was thus excluded. At 24 weeks, ACR20 responses were seen in more patients receiving tocilizumab than in those receiving placebo (120 [59%] patients in the 8 mg/kg group, 102 [48%] in the 4 mg/kg group, 54 [26%] in the placebo group; odds ratio 4.0 [95% CI 2.6-6.1], p<0.0001 for 8 mg/kg vs placebo; and 2.6 [1.7-3.9], p<0.0001 for 4 mg/kg vs placebo). More people receiving tocilizumab than those receiving placebo had at least one adverse event (143 [69%] in the 8 mg/kg group; 151 [71%] in the 4 mg/kg group; 129 [63%] in the placebo group). The most common serious adverse events were serious infections or infestations, reported by six patients in the 8 mg/kg group, three in the 4 mg/kg group, and two in the placebo group.
Tocilizumab could be an effective therapeutic approach in patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis.
F Hoffmann-La Roche, Chugai Pharmaceutical.

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    • "Input Base Low High Source Population characteristics Age (y), mean 54 48 59 [12] Body weight (kg) 77 70 85 – Sex: female, % 80 72 89 [12] Starting HAQ score, mean 1.65 1.49 1.82 [10] "
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy (Mono) versus adalimumab (ADA) Mono from the US payer perspective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis for whom methotrexate is inappropriate. We compared TCZ Mono (8 mg/kg monthly) with ADA Mono (40 mg every other week), using efficacy results from a head-to-head study, ADalimumab ACTemrA (ADACTA). We calculated the incremental cost per responder (achievement of American College of Rheumatology [ACR] 20% improvement criteria, ACR 50% improvement criteria, ACR 70% improvement criteria, or low disease activity score) for TCZ versus ADA at 6 months. A patient-level simulation was used to estimate the lifetime incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of initiating treatment with TCZ Mono versus ADA Mono. Both drugs are followed by an etanercept-certolizumab-palliative care sequence. Nonresponders discontinue at 6 months; responders experience a constant probability of discontinuation. Discontinuers move to the next treatment. ACR responses produce changes in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. We mapped the HAQ score to utility to estimate QALYs. Costs include those related to hospitalization and those related to treatment (drug acquisition, administration, and monitoring). Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted, along with several scenario analyses. Compared with ADA, TCZ was more effective, with an estimated 6-month incremental cost ranging from $6,570 per additional low disease activity score achiever to $14,265 per additional ACR 70% improvement criteria responder. The lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $36,944/QALY. TCZ Mono is projected to be cost-effective compared with ADA Mono in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis for whom methotrexate is not appropriate, from a US payer perspective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Value in Health 01/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2014.10.013 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    • "is still lacking. Based on results from the open-label use of the IL-6R antagonist tocilizumab (TCZ, Actemra; Roche) for the treatment of GCA [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] and data generated in TCZ trials for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [26] [27] [28] [29], a phase III randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of TCZ for GCA has been initiated. The objectives of this paper are to describe the design elements of the GiACTA trial and to discuss issues related to the development of the study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Overview. The GiACTA trial is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study designed to test the ability of tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antagonist, to maintain disease remission in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). Design. Approximately 100 centers will enroll 250 patients with active disease. The trial consists of a 52-week blinded treatment phase followed by 104 weeks of open-label extension. Patients will be randomized into one of four groups. Group A (TCZ 162 mg weekly plus a 6-month prednisone-taper); group B (TCZ 162 mg every other week plus a 6-month prednisone-taper); group C (placebo plus a 6-month prednisone-taper); and group D (placebo plus a 12-month prednisone taper). We hypothesize that patients assigned to TCZ in addition to a 6-month prednisone course are more likely to achieve the primary efficacy endpoint of sustained remission (SR) at 52 weeks compared with those assigned to a 6-month prednisone course alone, thus potentially minimizing the long-term adverse effects of corticosteroids. Conclusion. GiACTA will test the hypothesis that interference with IL-6 signaling exerts a beneficial effect on patients with GCA. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of the trial and address major issues related to its development.
    International Journal of Rheumatology 04/2013; 2013(2):912562. DOI:10.1155/2013/912562
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    • "Systemic actions of IL-6 include; stimulation of production of acutephase proteins, induction of anemia, and impairment of HPA axis [14]. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis abnormality has been linked to the development of fatigue in many diseases [15]. In the central nervous system, IL-6 can modulate the HPA axis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients and methodsThe study included 30 patients with RA diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR-EULAR classification criteria for RA and 15 healthy controls. Patients were included if they were above 18 years and fulfilled a score ⩾6 over 10 of the 2010 ACR-EULAR classification criteria for RA. Disease activity was assessed using 28 joint disease activity score (DAS28), erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP). Fatigue was assessed with the Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multidimensional Questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ) and serum IL-6 level was measured in patients and controls.ResultsThe BRAF-MDQ was significantly higher among patients (mean = 50.6 ± 15.2) than controls (mean = 7.8 ± 3.7) (p < 0.001). Patients’ mean IL-6 serum level was 35.05 ± 21.23 pg/ml and 4.72 ± 3.09 pg/ml among control subjects (p < 0.001). DAS 28 ranged between 4.33 and 7.67, mean 1st hour ESR was 43.57 mm and CRP was positive in 76.7% of patients. Significant correlations were found between BRAF-MDQ score and serum IL-6 level (r = 0.947, p < 0.001), ESR (r = 0.509, p < 0.001) as well as CRP positivity (r = 0.411, p = 0.005) in RA patients. Serum IL-6 level correlated with ESR (r = 0.463, p < 0.001) and CRP (r = 0.376, p = 0.01) among patients.Conclusion Fatigue is a common symptom and scores higher among RA patients than healthy controls and should be measured in all RA patients with simple fatigue questionnaires matching with different cultures. Fatigue becomes more prominent as serum IL-6 level increases independently of the disease duration and activity.
    10/2012; 34(4):153–157. DOI:10.1016/j.ejr.2012.08.004
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