The Associations of Regional Adipose Tissue With Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in HIV-Infected Men

AIDS Clinical Trials Unit, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 06/2008; 48(1):44-52. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31816d9ba1
Source: PubMed


HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional adipose tissue depots and lipid levels is not defined.
The association of magnetic resonance imaging-measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume with fasting lipid parameters was analyzed by multivariable linear regression in 737 HIV-infected and 145 control men from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection.
HIV-infected men had higher median triglycerides (170 mg/dL vs. 107 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 38 mg/dL vs. 46 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 105 mg/dL vs. 125 mg/dL; P < 0.0001) than controls. After adjustment, greater VAT was associated with higher triglycerides and lower HDL-C in HIV-infected and control men, whereas greater leg SAT was associated with lower triglycerides in HIV-infected men with a similar trend in controls. More upper trunk SAT was associated with higher LDL-C and lower HDL-C in controls, whereas more lower trunk SAT was associated with higher triglycerides in controls. After adjustment, HIV infection remained strongly associated (P < 0.0001) with higher triglycerides (+76%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 53 to 103), lower LDL-C (-19%, 95% CI: -25 to -12), and lower HDL-C (-18%, 95% CI: -22 to -12).
HIV-infected men are more likely than controls to have higher triglycerides and lower HDL-C, which promote atherosclerosis, but also lower LDL-C. Less leg SAT and more VAT are important factors associated with high triglycerides and low HDL-C in HIV-infected men. The reduced leg SAT in HIV-infected men with lipoatrophy places them at increased risk for proatherogenic dyslipidemia.

Download full-text


Available from: Steven B Heymsfield, Dec 15, 2014
5 Reads
  • Source
    • "Studies have also shown that NC is corrected with decreased HDL–C and increased TG [31-33]. Additionally, other studies reported that increased upper body subcutaneous fat is associated with increased LDL-C and decreased HDL-C [34]. The association between head fat and lipid levels in our study was not obvious. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Body adiposity, especially ectopic fat accumulation, has a range of metabolic and cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between head fat and metabolic values in Chinese obese patients. Methods Data of this cross-sectional study from 66 obese patients were collected. Fat distribution was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and data of body weight, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), visceral index, basal metabolism (BM), glucose metabolism, lipid levels, uric acid (UA) had been collected. Results 1) Head fat was significantly associated with BMI, WC, HC, visceral index, BM, total fat and total fat excluding head fat in both males and females (p < 0.05). Head fat was positively correlated with upper limb fat, trunk fat, weight, fasting plasma C peptide, fasting plasma insulin and UA in women(p < 0.05), and the association was not statistically significant in male (p > 0.05). Head fat was positively corrected with NC in males (p < 0.05) but not females (p > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between head fat and fasting plasma glucose, total choleslerolemia, triglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fat acid in either gender (p > 0.05). 2) Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that a head fat of 1925.6 g and a head fat of 1567.85 g were the best cut-off values to determine subjects with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hyperuricemia respectively. Conclusions Head fat accumulation was closely associated with increased body fat, hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, and impared lipid profile, suggesting it might be used as an indicator for dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 07/2014; 13(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-113 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, the main effect of PI appears to be the suppression of the breakdown of the nuclear form of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (nSREBP1) in the liver and adipose tissue. This regulator is a key element in the proteolytic pathway responsible for regulating cellular and plasma levels of fat and cholesterol [6]. In this context, HAART and HIV-1 infection per se may represent a greater "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve), and 509 were receiving HAART). HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n = 195) or nevirapine (NVP; n = 95) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n = 219). Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios) were determined. Results: PON1 activity (U/L) was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r = 0,121; P = 0,014). The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio) in comparison with other groups. Conclusion: PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.
    Disease markers 02/2014; 2014(6):480201. DOI:10.1155/2014/480201 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "As previously reported (Bacchetti et al., 2005; J. Currier et al., 2008; Fat distribution in women with HIV infection, " 2006; Tien et al., 2006; Wohl et al., 2008), most FRAM participants were ART-experienced (on ART at the time of exam: men 81%, women 71%; on ART ever: 92% men, 85% women), and our study was not designed to discern the effects of long-term or past exposure on current risk. Differences in CVD risk factors between HIVinfected subjects and controls is another limitation of this study, as minimizing differences between the groups is critical to accurately assessing the contribution of HIV-specific covariates. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipodystrophy, but the relationship between regional adipose tissue (AT) depots and CVD risk is not well described. We determined regional AT volumes and CVD risk in an analysis of 586 HIV-infected and 280 control FRAM study subjects using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Median FRS and FRS >10% were higher in HIV than control men (4.7% vs. 3.7%, p=0.0002; 16% vs. 4%, p<0.0001). HIV and control women had similarly low FRS (1.1% vs. 1.2%, p=0.91). In controls, total AT and all regional AT depots showed strong positive correlations with FRS (p<0.001) in men and weaker positive correlations in women. Greater visceral AT (VAT) and lower leg subcutaneous AT (SAT) volumes were associated with elevated FRS in HIV subjects with a trend for upper trunk SAT. Controls in the lowest quartile of leg SAT had the lowest FRS (1.5%), whereas HIV with similarly low leg SAT had the highest FRS (4.0%, p<0.001 vs. controls). Increased VAT is associated with CVD risk, but the risk is higher in HIV-infected individuals relative to controls at every level of VAT. Peripheral lipoatrophy (as measured by leg SAT) is associated with striking increased CVD risk in HIV-infected patients even after controlling for VAT, whereas low leg SAT is associated with low CVD risk in controls.
    AIDS Care 08/2011; 23(8):929-38. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2010.543885 · 1.60 Impact Factor
Show more