Emotion-focused principles for working with borderline personality disorder.
ABSTRACT This paper discusses the function of emotion, its importance in the treatment of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and the integration of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) principles in the psychotherapeutic management of patients with BPD. EFT principles involve emotional assessment; a strong therapeutic alliance as a necessary context for treatment; the therapeutic relationship as a bond that regulates affect through empathy, emotional validation, and interpersonal soothing; emotion-regulation; psychoeducation about emotional processes; the therapist as an emotional coach; and transforming emotion schemes as primary mechanisms of change. The authors discuss how EFT principles can be viewed as primary intervention strategies in the treatment of patients with BPD and how they can be incorporated into various psychotherapy approaches. Based on our experience, the integration of EFT principles into the therapy of patients with BPD shows promise as it has been helpful in targeting BPD symptoms, and is feasible and acceptable to patients.
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ABSTRACT: Dialogical sequence analysis (DSA) is a microanalytic method of analyzing utterances. Based on Mikahil Bakhtin’s theory of utterance it states that, when communicating, individuals simultaneously position themselves with regard to the referential object and the addressee. Depending “about what” people are speaking and “to whom” they direct their words affect the style and composition of their utterances. Such positioning is semiotic in the sense that the referential object is always construed by personal and historically formed meanings. The historicity of subjective construal applies to the addressee as well. Utterances are often complicated by the fact that there are often hidden or invisible addressees in addition to the ostensible interlocutor. DSA developed in the context of psychotherapy supervision and process research. The article introduces a meta-model of psychotherapy process, which claims that all therapies strive to create a joint observational stance for making sense of clients’ problematic experiences. Hence, the psychotherapies provide a natural laboratory within which internal experiences become tangible through expressions and utterances. The fundamental unit of analyzing the double positioning in relation to the topic and the addressees is semiotic position. Being a relational concept, it cannot be used to single out and categorize distinct units of speech. The way by which semiotic positions are identified in DSA will be illustrated by three excerpts from psychotherapy literature.