Progress in allergy signal research on mast cells: regulation of allergic airway inflammation through toll-like receptor 4-mediated modification of mast cell function.
ABSTRACT In a mouse experimental asthma model, the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly at low doses, enhances the levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation. In an effort to clarify the cellular and molecular basis for the LPS effect, we demonstrate that the OVA-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the lung is dramatically increased by administration of LPS at the priming phase in wild-type mice, whereas such an increase was not observed in mast cell deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) from wild type but not from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice restored the increased eosinophilic inflammation in mast cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in vitro analysis revealed that treatment of BMMC with LPS resulted in sustained up-regulation of GATA1 expression and increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) upon restimulation. Thus, mast cells appear to control allergic airway inflammation after their activation and modulation through TLR4-mediated induction of GATA1 proteins and subsequent increase in Th2 cytokine production.