Progress in allergy signal research on mast cells: regulation of allergic airway inflammation through toll-like receptor 4-mediated modification of mast cell function.
ABSTRACT In a mouse experimental asthma model, the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly at low doses, enhances the levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation. In an effort to clarify the cellular and molecular basis for the LPS effect, we demonstrate that the OVA-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the lung is dramatically increased by administration of LPS at the priming phase in wild-type mice, whereas such an increase was not observed in mast cell deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) from wild type but not from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice restored the increased eosinophilic inflammation in mast cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in vitro analysis revealed that treatment of BMMC with LPS resulted in sustained up-regulation of GATA1 expression and increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) upon restimulation. Thus, mast cells appear to control allergic airway inflammation after their activation and modulation through TLR4-mediated induction of GATA1 proteins and subsequent increase in Th2 cytokine production.
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ABSTRACT: Recognition of microbial infection and initiation of host defense responses is controlled by multiple mechanisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as a key component of the innate immune system that detect microbial infection and trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. TLRs activate multiple steps in the inflammatory reactions that help to eliminate the invading pathogens and coordinate systemic defenses. In addition, TLRs control multiple dendritic cell functions and activate signals that are critically involved in the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have provided important clues about the mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity orchestrated by dendritic cell populations in distinct anatomical locations.Nature Immunology 11/2004; 5(10):987-95. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that control the activation of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. It has been suggested that the initiation of adaptive immune responses is controlled by innate immune recognition. Mammalian Toll-like receptors play an essential role in innate immunity by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiating the activation of NF-kappaB and other signaling pathways through the adapter protein, MyD88. Here we show that MyD88-deficient mice have a profound defect in the activation of antigen-specific T helper type 1 (TH1) but not TH2 immune responses. These results suggest that distinct pathways of the innate immune system control activation of the two effector arms of adaptive immunity.Nature Immunology 11/2001; 2(10):947-50. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While mast cells have been previously shown to express both GATA-1 and GATA-2 mRNAs, individual functions for these related factors during their course of differentiation within the mast cell lineage have not yet been defined. To address this question, the expression of GATA-1 and GATA-2 mRNAs and proteins were examined in three mouse mast cell progenitor lines as well as in mast cells isolated from both wild-type and GATA-1-deficient mice. Both mast cell progenitor lines, as well as primary mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and peritoneal mast cells (PMCs) were examined by RNA blotting and immunological analyses. GATA-2 protein was abundantly expressed in all three mast cell lines and in BMMCs, but only weakly in some of PMCs. In contrast, GATA-1 protein was expressed in PMCs and BMMCs after culture in the presence of IL3 and SCF. We also found the presence of Alcian blue staining-positive but berberine staining-negative mast cells in the skin of mice heterozygous to GATA-1 knock-down allele. These results suggest that the expression of GATA factor-dependent genes is regulated by GATA-2 during mast cell development and that GATA-1 is required for the specification of differentiated mast cell phenotypes.Genes to Cells 02/1998; 3(1):39-50. · 2.73 Impact Factor