Binding of TFIIB to RNA polymerase II: Mapping the binding site for the TFIIB zinc ribbon domain within the preinitiation complex.
ABSTRACT RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is recruited to promoters by interaction with general transcription factors. The zinc ribbon domain of the general factor TFIIB is essential for Pol II recruitment. Site-specific photocrosslinking and directed hydroxyl radical probing were used to map the location of the TFIIB zinc ribbon domain on Pol II within the transcription preinitiation complex (PIC). These results, along with mutational analysis, suggest that in the PIC, the TFIIB ribbon domain interacts with a surface of the Pol II Dock domain where it overlaps the RNA exit point. This surface is best conserved in polymerases that require a TFIIB-like factor. Our results suggest a general mechanism for interaction of TFIIB-like factors and RNA polymerases and a mechanism for the function of the ribbon domain.
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pol) I, II, III and archaeal Pol use a related set of general transcription factors to recognize promoter sequences and recruit Pol to promoters and to function at key points in the transcription initiation mechanism. The TFIIB-like general transcription factors (GTFs) function during several important and conserved steps in the initiation pathway for Pols II, III, and archaeal Pol. Until recently, the mechanism of Pol I initiation seemed unique, since it appeared to lack a GTF paralogous to the TFIIB-like proteins. The surprising recent discovery of TFIIB-related Pol I general factors in yeast and humans highlights the evolutionary conservation of transcription initiation mechanisms for all eukaryotic and archaeal Pols. These findings reveal new roles for the function of the Pol I GTFs and insight into the function of TFIIB-related factors. Models for Pol I transcription initiation are reexamined in light of these recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An ATP-dependent DNA translocase domain consisting of seven conserved motifs is a general feature of all ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers. While motifs on the ATPase domains of the yeast SWI/SNF and ISWI families of remodelers are highly conserved, the ATPase domains of these complexes appear not to be functionally interchangeable. We found one reason that may account for this is the ATPase domains interact differently with nucleosomes even though both associate with nucleosomal DNA 17-18 bp from the dyad axis. The cleft formed between the two lobes of the ISW2 ATPase domain is bound to nucleosomal DNA and Isw2 associates with the side of nucleosomal DNA away from the histone octamer. The ATPase domain of SWI/SNF binds to the same region of nucleosomal DNA, but is bound outside of the cleft region. The catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF also appears to intercalate between the DNA gyre and histone octamer. The altered interactions of SWI/SNF with DNA are specific to nucleosomes and do not occur with free DNA. These differences are likely mediated through interactions with the histone surface. The placement of SWI/SNF between the octamer and DNA could make it easier to disrupt histone-DNA interactions.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2012; 40(10):4412-21. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Evidence that RNA polymerase II and not TFIIB is responsible for the difference in transcription initiation patterns between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The basal eukaryotic transcription machinery for protein coding genes is highly conserved from unicellular yeast to higher eukaryotes. Whereas TATA-containing promoters in human cells usually contain a single transcription start site (TSS) located ∼ 30 bp downstream of the TATA element, transcription in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae typically initiates at multiple sites within a window ranging from 30 to 70 bp or 40 to 200 bp downstream of a TATA element, respectively. By exchanging highly purified factors between reconstituted S. pombe and S. cerevisiae transcription systems, we confirmed previous observations that the dual exchange of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) confer the distinct initiation patterns between these yeast species. Surprisingly, however, further genetic and biochemical assays of TFIIB chimeras revealed that TFIIB and the proposed B-finger/reader domain do not play a role in determining the distinct initiation patterns between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae, but rather, these patterns are solely due to differences in RNAPII. These results are discussed within the context of a proposed model for the mechanistic coupling of the efficiency of early phosphodiester bond formation during productive TSS utilization and intrinsic elongation proficiency.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2012; 40(14):6495-507. · 8.03 Impact Factor