Repair of HZE-particle-induced DNA double-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT DNA damage generated by high-energy and high-Z (HZE) particles is more skewed toward multiply damaged sites or clustered DNA damage than damage induced by low-linear energy transfer (LET) X and gamma rays. Clustered DNA damage includes abasic sites, base damages and single- (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). This complex DNA damage is difficult to repair and may require coordinated recruitment of multiple DNA repair factors. As a consequence of the production of irreparable clustered lesions, a greater biological effectiveness is observed for HZE-particle radiation than for low-LET radiation. To understand how the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles, the kinetics of DSB rejoining and cell survival after exposure of normal human skin fibroblasts to a spectrum of HZE particles was examined. Using gamma-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DSB formation and rejoining, the ability of cells to rejoin DSBs was found to decrease with increasing Z; specifically, iron-ion-induced DSBs were repaired at a rate similar to those induced by silicon ions, oxygen ions and gamma radiation, but a larger fraction of iron-ion-induced damage was irreparable. Furthermore, both DNA-PKcs (DSB repair factor) and 53BP1 (DSB sensing protein) co-localized with gamma-H2AX along the track of dense ionization produced by iron and silicon ions and their focus dissolution kinetics was similar to that of gamma-H2AX. Spatial co-localization analysis showed that unlike gamma-H2AX and 53BP1, phosphorylated DNA-PKcs was localized only at very specific regions, presumably representing the sites of DSBs within the tracks. Examination of cell survival by clonogenic assay indicated that cell killing was greater for iron ions than for silicon and oxygen ions and gamma rays. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs within clustered DNA lesions likely contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles.
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ABSTRACT: High-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation, derived from high charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) particles, induces clustered/complex DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that include small DNA fragments, which are not repaired by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway plays a major role in repairing DSBs induced by HZE particles. The Mre11 complex (Mre11/Rad50/NBS1)-mediated resection of DSB ends is a required step in preparing for DSB repair via the HR DNA repair pathway. Here we found that expression of Bcl2 results in decreased HR activity and retards the repair of DSBs induced by HZE particles (i.e. 56iron and 28silicon) by inhibiting Mre11 complex activity. Exposure of cells to 56iron or 28silicon promotes Bcl2 to interact with Mre11 via the BH1 and BH4 domains. Purified Bcl2 protein directly suppresses Mre11 complex-mediated DNA resection in vitro. Expression of Bcl2 reduces the ability of Mre11 to bind DNA following exposure of cells to HZE particles. Our findings suggest that, after cellular exposure to HZE particles, Bcl2 may inhibit Mre11 complex-mediated DNA resection leading to suppression of the HR-mediated DSB repair in surviving cells, which may potentially contribute to tumor development.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High linear energy transfer (LET) ionising radiation (IR) such as radon-derived alpha particles and high mass, high energy (HZE) particles of cosmic radiation are the predominant forms of IR to which humanity is exposed throughout life. High-LET forms of IR are established carcinogens relevant to human cancer, and their potent mutagenicity is believed, in part, to be due to a greater incidence of clustered DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and associated lesions, as ionization events occur within a more confined genomic space. The repair of such DNA damage is now well-documented to occur with slower kinetics relative to that induced by low-LET IR, and to be more reliant upon homology-directed repair pathways. Underlying these phenomena is the relative inability of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) to adequately resolve high-LET IR-induced DSBs. Current findings suggest that the functionality of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), comprised of the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer and the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is particularly perturbed by high-LET IR-induced clustered DSBs, rendering DNA-PK dependent NHEJ less relevant to resolving these lesions. By contrast, the NHEJ-associated DNA processing endonuclease Artemis shows a greater relevance to high-LET IR-induced DSB repair. Here, we will review the cellular response to high-LET irradiation, the implications of the chronic, low-dose modality of this exposure and molecular pathways that respond to high-LET irradiation induced DSBs, with particular emphasis on NHEJ factors.DNA repair 05/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report the functional and temporal relationship between cellular phenotypes such as oxidative stress, p38MAPK-dependent responses and genomic instability persisting in the progeny of cells exposed to sparsely ionizing low-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation such as X-rays or high-charge and high-energy (HZE) particle high-LET radiation such as 56Fe ions. We found that exposure to low and high-LET radiation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as a threshold-like response induced independently of radiation quality and dose. This response was sustained for two weeks, which is the period of time when genomic instability is evidenced by increased micronucleus formation frequency and DNA damage associated foci. Indicators for another persisting response sharing phenotypes with stress-induced senescence, including beta galactosidase induction, increased nuclear size, p38MAPK activation and IL-8 production, were induced in the absence of cell proliferation arrest during the first, but not the second week following exposure to high-LET radiation. This response was driven by a p38MAPK-dependent mechanism and was affected by radiation quality and dose. This stress response and elevation of ROS affected genomic instability by distinct pathways. Through interference with p38MAPK activity, we show that radiation-induced stress phenotypes promote genomic instability. In contrast, exposure to physiologically relevant doses of hydrogen peroxide or increasing endogenous ROS levels with a catalase inhibitor reduced the level of genomic instability. Our results implicate persistently elevated ROS following exposure to radiation as a factor contributing to genome stabilization.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108234. · 3.53 Impact Factor