Repair of HZE-particle-induced DNA double-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT DNA damage generated by high-energy and high-Z (HZE) particles is more skewed toward multiply damaged sites or clustered DNA damage than damage induced by low-linear energy transfer (LET) X and gamma rays. Clustered DNA damage includes abasic sites, base damages and single- (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). This complex DNA damage is difficult to repair and may require coordinated recruitment of multiple DNA repair factors. As a consequence of the production of irreparable clustered lesions, a greater biological effectiveness is observed for HZE-particle radiation than for low-LET radiation. To understand how the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles, the kinetics of DSB rejoining and cell survival after exposure of normal human skin fibroblasts to a spectrum of HZE particles was examined. Using gamma-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DSB formation and rejoining, the ability of cells to rejoin DSBs was found to decrease with increasing Z; specifically, iron-ion-induced DSBs were repaired at a rate similar to those induced by silicon ions, oxygen ions and gamma radiation, but a larger fraction of iron-ion-induced damage was irreparable. Furthermore, both DNA-PKcs (DSB repair factor) and 53BP1 (DSB sensing protein) co-localized with gamma-H2AX along the track of dense ionization produced by iron and silicon ions and their focus dissolution kinetics was similar to that of gamma-H2AX. Spatial co-localization analysis showed that unlike gamma-H2AX and 53BP1, phosphorylated DNA-PKcs was localized only at very specific regions, presumably representing the sites of DSBs within the tracks. Examination of cell survival by clonogenic assay indicated that cell killing was greater for iron ions than for silicon and oxygen ions and gamma rays. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs within clustered DNA lesions likely contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles.
Article: The dynamics of Ku70/80 and DNA-PKcs at DSBs induced by ionizing radiation is dependent on the complexity of damage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are biologically one of the most important cellular lesions and possess varying degrees of chemical complexity. The notion that the repairability of more chemically complex DSBs is inefficient led to the concept that the extent of DSB complexity underlies the severity of the biological consequences. The repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has been extensively studied but it remains unknown whether more complex DSBs require a different sub-set of NHEJ protein for their repair compared with simple DSBs. To address this, we have induced DSBs in fluorescently tagged mammalian cells (Ku80-EGFP, DNA-PKcs-YFP or XRCC4-GFP, key proteins in NHEJ) using ultra-soft X-rays (USX) or multi-photon near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. We have shown in real-time that simple DSBs, induced by USX or NIR microbeam irradiation, are repaired rapidly involving Ku70/80 and XRCC4/Ligase IV/XLF. In contrast, DSBs with greater chemical complexity are repaired slowly involving not only Ku70/80 and XRCC4/Ligase IV/XLF but also DNA-PKcs. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated inhibition only retards repair of the more chemically complex DSBs which require DNA-PKcs. In summary, the repair of DSBs by NHEJ is highly regulated with pathway choice and kinetics of repair dependent on the chemical complexity of the DSB.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2012; · 8.03 Impact Factor
Dataset: PLOSone AUG 2012
Article: Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure Triggered Higher Intestinal Tumor Frequency and Greater β-Catenin Activation than γ Radiation in APCMin/+ Mice[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) after exposure to low linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation such as γ-ray is highlighted by the studies in atom bomb survivors. On the contrary, CRC risk prediction after exposure to high-LET cosmic heavy ion radiation exposure is hindered due to scarcity of in vivo data. Therefore, intestinal tumor frequency, size, cluster, and grade were studied in APCMin/+ mice (n = 20 per group; 6 to 8 wks old; female) 100 to 110 days after exposure to 1.6 or 4 Gy of heavy ion 56Fe radiation (energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon) and results were compared to γ radiation doses of 2 or 5 Gy, which are equitoxic to 1.6 and 4 Gy 56Fe respectively. Due to relevance of lower doses to radiotherapy treatment fractions and space exploration, we followed 2 Gy γ and equitoxic 1.6 Gy 56Fe for comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, differentiation, and β-catenin signaling pathway alterations between the two radiation types using immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. Relative to controls and γ-ray, intestinal tumor frequency and grade was significantly higher after 56Fe radiation. Additionally, tumor incidence per unit of radiation (per cGy) was also higher after 56Fe radiation relative to γ radiation. Staining for phospho-histone H3, indicative of IEC proliferation, was more and alcian blue staining, indicative of IEC differentiation, was less in 56Fe than γ irradiated samples. Activation of β-catenin was more in 56Fe-irradiated tumor-free and tumor-bearing areas of the intestinal tissues. When considered along with higher levels of cyclin D1, we infer that relative to γ radiation exposure to 56Fe radiation induced markedly reduced differentiation, and increased proliferative index in IEC resulting in increased intestinal tumors of larger size and grade due to preferentially greater activation of β-catenin and its downstream effectors.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3): e59295. · 4.09 Impact Factor