Repair of HZE-particle-induced DNA double-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT DNA damage generated by high-energy and high-Z (HZE) particles is more skewed toward multiply damaged sites or clustered DNA damage than damage induced by low-linear energy transfer (LET) X and gamma rays. Clustered DNA damage includes abasic sites, base damages and single- (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). This complex DNA damage is difficult to repair and may require coordinated recruitment of multiple DNA repair factors. As a consequence of the production of irreparable clustered lesions, a greater biological effectiveness is observed for HZE-particle radiation than for low-LET radiation. To understand how the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles, the kinetics of DSB rejoining and cell survival after exposure of normal human skin fibroblasts to a spectrum of HZE particles was examined. Using gamma-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DSB formation and rejoining, the ability of cells to rejoin DSBs was found to decrease with increasing Z; specifically, iron-ion-induced DSBs were repaired at a rate similar to those induced by silicon ions, oxygen ions and gamma radiation, but a larger fraction of iron-ion-induced damage was irreparable. Furthermore, both DNA-PKcs (DSB repair factor) and 53BP1 (DSB sensing protein) co-localized with gamma-H2AX along the track of dense ionization produced by iron and silicon ions and their focus dissolution kinetics was similar to that of gamma-H2AX. Spatial co-localization analysis showed that unlike gamma-H2AX and 53BP1, phosphorylated DNA-PKcs was localized only at very specific regions, presumably representing the sites of DSBs within the tracks. Examination of cell survival by clonogenic assay indicated that cell killing was greater for iron ions than for silicon and oxygen ions and gamma rays. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs within clustered DNA lesions likely contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles.
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ABSTRACT: Biological validation of new radiotherapy modalities is essential to understand their therapeutic potential. Antiprotons have been proposed for cancer therapy due to enhanced dose deposition provided by antiproton-nucleon annihilation. We assessed cellular DNA damage and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a clinically relevant antiproton beam. Despite a modest LET (~19 keV/μm), antiproton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation caused significant residual γ-H2AX foci compared to X-ray, proton and antiproton plateau irradiation. RBE of ~1.48 in the SOBP and ~1 in the plateau were measured and used for a qualitative effective dose curve comparison with proton and carbon-ions. Foci in the antiproton SOBP were larger and more structured compared to X-rays, protons and carbon-ions. This is likely due to overlapping particle tracks near the annihilation vertex, creating spatially correlated DNA lesions. No biological effects were observed at 28-42 mm away from the primary beam suggesting minimal risk from long-range secondary particles.Scientific Reports 05/2013; 3:1770. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether loss of skeletal muscle mass and function experienced by astronauts during space flight could be augmented by ionizing radiation (IR), such as low-dose high-charge and energy (HZE) particles or low-dose high-energy proton radiation. In the current study adult mice were irradiated whole-body with either a single dose of 15 cGy of 1 GeV/n (56)Fe-particle or with a 90 cGy proton of 1 GeV/n proton particles. Both ionizing radiation types caused alterations in the skeletal muscle cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis. (56)Fe-particle irradiation also caused a reduction of depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The increase in the [Ca(2+)]i was detected as early as 24 h after (56)Fe-particle irradiation, while effects of proton irradiation were only evident at 72 h. In both instances [Ca(2+)]i returned to baseline at day 7 after irradiation. All (56)Fe-particle irradiated samples revealed a significant number of centrally localized nuclei, a histologic manifestation of regenerating muscle, 7 days after irradiation. Neither unirradiated control or proton-irradiated samples exhibited such a phenotype. Protein analysis revealed significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2 and rpS6k on day 7 in (56)Fe-particle irradiated skeletal muscle, but not proton or unirradiated skeletal muscle, suggesting activation of pro-survival signaling. Our findings suggest that a single low-dose (56)Fe-particle or proton exposure is sufficient to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle. However, only (56)Fe-particle irradiation led to the appearance of central nuclei and activation of pro-survival pathways, suggesting an ongoing muscle damage/recovery process.Radiation Research 10/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report the functional and temporal relationship between cellular phenotypes such as oxidative stress, p38MAPK-dependent responses and genomic instability persisting in the progeny of cells exposed to sparsely ionizing low-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation such as X-rays or high-charge and high-energy (HZE) particle high-LET radiation such as 56Fe ions. We found that exposure to low and high-LET radiation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as a threshold-like response induced independently of radiation quality and dose. This response was sustained for two weeks, which is the period of time when genomic instability is evidenced by increased micronucleus formation frequency and DNA damage associated foci. Indicators for another persisting response sharing phenotypes with stress-induced senescence, including beta galactosidase induction, increased nuclear size, p38MAPK activation and IL-8 production, were induced in the absence of cell proliferation arrest during the first, but not the second week following exposure to high-LET radiation. This response was driven by a p38MAPK-dependent mechanism and was affected by radiation quality and dose. This stress response and elevation of ROS affected genomic instability by distinct pathways. Through interference with p38MAPK activity, we show that radiation-induced stress phenotypes promote genomic instability. In contrast, exposure to physiologically relevant doses of hydrogen peroxide or increasing endogenous ROS levels with a catalase inhibitor reduced the level of genomic instability. Our results implicate persistently elevated ROS following exposure to radiation as a factor contributing to genome stabilization.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e108234. · 3.53 Impact Factor