Repair of HZE-Particle-induced DNA double-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts
ABSTRACT DNA damage generated by high-energy and high-Z (HZE) particles is more skewed toward multiply damaged sites or clustered DNA damage than damage induced by low-linear energy transfer (LET) X and gamma rays. Clustered DNA damage includes abasic sites, base damages and single- (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). This complex DNA damage is difficult to repair and may require coordinated recruitment of multiple DNA repair factors. As a consequence of the production of irreparable clustered lesions, a greater biological effectiveness is observed for HZE-particle radiation than for low-LET radiation. To understand how the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles, the kinetics of DSB rejoining and cell survival after exposure of normal human skin fibroblasts to a spectrum of HZE particles was examined. Using gamma-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DSB formation and rejoining, the ability of cells to rejoin DSBs was found to decrease with increasing Z; specifically, iron-ion-induced DSBs were repaired at a rate similar to those induced by silicon ions, oxygen ions and gamma radiation, but a larger fraction of iron-ion-induced damage was irreparable. Furthermore, both DNA-PKcs (DSB repair factor) and 53BP1 (DSB sensing protein) co-localized with gamma-H2AX along the track of dense ionization produced by iron and silicon ions and their focus dissolution kinetics was similar to that of gamma-H2AX. Spatial co-localization analysis showed that unlike gamma-H2AX and 53BP1, phosphorylated DNA-PKcs was localized only at very specific regions, presumably representing the sites of DSBs within the tracks. Examination of cell survival by clonogenic assay indicated that cell killing was greater for iron ions than for silicon and oxygen ions and gamma rays. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the inability of cells to rejoin DSBs within clustered DNA lesions likely contributes to the greater biological effectiveness of HZE particles.
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ABSTRACT: The spatial distribution of radiation-induced DNA breaks within the cell nucleus depends on radiation quality in terms of energy deposition pattern. It is generally assumed that the higher the radiation linear energy transfer (LET), the greater the DNA damage complexity. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we examined the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, size distribution and 3D focus morphology, and the relationship between DNA damage and cellular end points (i.e., cell killing and lethal mutations) after exposure to gamma rays, protons, carbon ions and alpha particles. Our results showed that the maximum number of foci are reached 30 min postirradiation for all radiation types. However, the number of foci after 0.5 Gy of each radiation type was different with gamma rays, protons, carbon ions and alpha particles inducing 12.64 ± 0.25, 10.11 ± 0.40, 8.84 ± 0.56 and 4.80 ± 0.35 foci, respectively, which indicated a clear influence of the track structure and fluence on the numbers of foci induced after a dose of 0.5 Gy for each radiation type. The γ-H2AX foci persistence was also dependent on radiation quality, i.e., the higher the LET, the longer the foci persisted in the cell nucleus. The γ-H2AX time course was compared with cell killing and lethal mutation and the results highlighted a correlation between cellular end points and the duration of γ-H2AX foci persistence. A model was developed to evaluate the probability that multiple DSBs reside in the same gamma-ray focus and such probability was found to be negligible for doses lower than 1 Gy. Our model provides evidence that the DSBs inside complex foci, such as those induced by alpha particles, are not processed independently or with the same time constant. The combination of experimental, theoretical and simulation data supports the hypothesis of an interdependent processing of closely associated DSBs, possibly associated with a diminished correct repair capability, which affects cell killing and lethal mutation.Radiation Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1667/RR13855.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation, derived from high charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) particles, induces clustered/complex DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that include small DNA fragments, which are not repaired by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway plays a major role in repairing DSBs induced by HZE particles. The Mre11 complex (Mre11/Rad50/NBS1)-mediated resection of DSB ends is a required step in preparing for DSB repair via the HR DNA repair pathway. Here we found that expression of Bcl2 results in decreased HR activity and retards the repair of DSBs induced by HZE particles (i.e. 56iron and 28silicon) by inhibiting Mre11 complex activity. Exposure of cells to 56iron or 28silicon promotes Bcl2 to interact with Mre11 via the BH1 and BH4 domains. Purified Bcl2 protein directly suppresses Mre11 complex-mediated DNA resection in vitro. Expression of Bcl2 reduces the ability of Mre11 to bind DNA following exposure of cells to HZE particles. Our findings suggest that, after cellular exposure to HZE particles, Bcl2 may inhibit Mre11 complex-mediated DNA resection leading to suppression of the HR-mediated DSB repair in surviving cells, which may potentially contribute to tumor development.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; 43(2). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1358 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In several researches, it has been demonstrated that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages. These complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. For this reason, clarifying the DNA repair mechanism after charged particle irradiation plays an important role in the development of charged particle therapy and space exploration. Unfortunately, the detail spatiotemporal kinetic of DNA damage repair is still unclear. In this study, we used gamma-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in alpha-particle irradiated HeLa cells. The result shows that the intensity of gamma-H2AX foci increased gradually, and reached to its maximum at 30 min after irradiation. A good linear relationship can be observed between foci intensity and radiation dose. After 30 min, the gamma-H2AX foci intensity was decreased with time passed, but remained a large portion (similar to 50%) at 48 h passed. The data show that the dissolution rate of gamma-H2AX foci agreed with two components DNA repairing model. These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA repair.Applied Surface Science 08/2014; 310:62-65. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.03.079 · 2.54 Impact Factor