Identification of the carboxylic acid functionality by using electrospray ionization and ion-molecule reactions in a modified linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.
ABSTRACT A mass spectrometric method has been developed for the identification of the carboxylic acid functional group in analytes evaporated and ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI). This method is based on gas-phase ion-molecule reactions of ammoniated ([M + NH4]+) and sodiated ([M + Na]+) analyte molecules with trimethyl borate (TMB) in a modified linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The diagnostic reaction involves addition of the deprotonated analyte to TMB followed by the elimination of methanol. A variety of analytes with different func-tionalities were examined, and this reaction was only observed for molecules containing the carboxylic acid functionality. The selectivity of the reaction is attributed to the acidic hydrogen present in the carboxylic acid group, which provides the proton necessary for the elimination of methanol. The diagnostic products are easily identified based on the m/z value of the product ion, which is 72 Th (thomson) greater than the m/z value of the charged analyte, and also by the character-istic isotope pattern of boron. The applicability of this method for pharmaceutical analysis was demonstrated for three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen.
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ABSTRACT: A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH(3)O)(2)BOH or formation of protonated (CH(3)O)(2)BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH(3)O)(2)BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH(3)O)(2)BOH (2) (+) is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH(3)O)(2)BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 01/2012; 23(1):12-22. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS(n)) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 04/2011; 22(4):670-82. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is difficult to directly analyze carboxylic acids in complex mixtures by ambient high-voltage-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (HALDI-MS) in negative ion mode due to the low ionization efficiency of carboxylic acids. A method for the rapid detection of carboxylic acids in negative HALDI-MS has been developed based on their inclusion with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The negative HALDI-MS signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of aliphatic, aromatic and hetero atom-containing carboxylic acids can all be significantly improved by forming 1:1 complexes with β-CD. These complexes are mainly formed by specific inclusion interactions which are verified by their collision-induced dissociation behaviors in comparison with that of their corresponding maltoheptaose complexes. A HALDI-MS/MS method has been successfully developed for the detection of α-lipoic acid in complex cosmetics and ibuprofen in a viscous drug suspension. The negative HALDI-MS S/Ns of carboxylic acids can be improved up to 30 times via forming non-covalent complexes with β-CD. The developed method shows the advantages of being rapid and simple, and is promising for rapid detection of active ingredients in complex samples or fast screening of drugs and cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2014; 28(1):115-122. · 2.51 Impact Factor