Functional segregation of a predicted "hinge" site within the beta-strand linkers of Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-3732, USA.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.38). 05/2008; 47(16):4808-16. DOI:10.1021/bi702494q
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) employ an editing mechanism to ensure the fidelity of protein synthesis. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS), and valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) share a common insertion, called the CP1 domain, which is responsible for clearing misformed products. This discrete domain is connected to the main body of the enzyme via two beta-strand tethers. The CP1 hydrolytic editing active site is located approximately 30 A from the aminoacylation active site in the canonical core of the enzyme, requiring translocation of mischarged amino acids for editing. An ensemble of crystal and cocrystal structures for LeuRS, IleRS, and ValRS suggests that the CP1 domain rotates via its flexible beta-strand linkers relative to the main body along various steps in the enzyme's reaction pathway. Computational analysis suggested that the end of the N-terminal beta-strand acted as a hinge. We hypothesized that a molecular hinge could specifically direct movement of the CP1 domain relative to the main body. We introduced a series of mutations into both beta-strands in attempts to hinder movement and alter fidelity of LeuRS. Our results have identified specific residues within the beta-strand tethers that selectively impact enzyme activity, supporting the idea that beta-strand orientation is crucial for LeuRS canonical core and CP1 domain functions.

0 0
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The yeast mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (ymLeuRS) performs dual essential roles in group I intron splicing and protein synthesis. A specific LeuRS domain called CP1 is responsible for clearing noncognate amino acids that are misactivated during aminoacylation. The ymLeuRS CP1 domain also plays a critical role in splicing. Herein, the ymLeuRS CP1 domain was isolated from the full-length enzyme and was active in RNA splicing in vitro. Unlike its Escherichia coli LeuRS CP1 domain counterpart, it failed to significantly hydrolyze misaminoacylated tRNA(Leu). In addition and in stark contrast to the yeast domain, the editing-active E. coli LeuRS CP1 domain failed to recapitulate the splicing activity of the full-length E. coli enzyme. Although LeuRS-dependent splicing activity is rooted in an ancient adaptation for its aminoacylation activity, these results suggest that the ymLeuRS has functionally diverged to confer a robust splicing activity. This adaptation could have come at some expense to the protein's housekeeping role in aminoacylation and editing.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(18):14772-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We substantiate our preliminary description of the class I tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase minimal catalytic domain with details of its construction, structure, and steady-state kinetic parameters. Generating that active fragment involved deleting 65% of the contemporary enzyme, including the anticodon-binding domain and connecting peptide 1, CP1, a 74-residue internal segment from within the Rossmann fold. We used protein design (Rosetta), rather than phylogenetic sequence alignments, to identify mutations to compensate for the severe loss of modularity, thus restoring stability, as evidenced by renaturation described previously and by 70-ns molecular dynamics simulations. Sufficient solubility to enable biochemical studies was achieved by expressing the redesigned Urzyme as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters from amino acid activation assays showed that, compared with the native full-length enzyme, TrpRS Urzyme binds ATP with similar affinity. This suggests that neither of the two deleted structural modules has a strong influence on ground-state ATP binding. However, tryptophan has 10(3) lower affinity, and the Urzyme has comparably reduced specificity relative to the related amino acid, tyrosine. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed how CP1 may contribute significantly to cognate amino acid specificity. As class Ia editing domains are nested within the CP1, this finding suggests that this module enhanced amino acid specificity continuously, throughout their evolution. We call this type of reconstructed protein catalyst an Urzyme (Ur prefix indicates original, primitive, or earliest). It establishes a model for recapitulating very early steps in molecular evolution in which fitness may have been enhanced by accumulating entire modules, rather than by discrete amino acid sequence changes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 285(49):38590-601. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proofreading/editing in protein synthesis is essential for accurate translation of information from the genetic code. In this article we present a theoretical investigation of efficiency of a kinetic proofreading mechanism that employs hydrolysis of the wrong substrate as the discriminatory step in enzyme catalytic reactions. We consider aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile) which is a crucial step in protein synthesis and for which experimental results are now available. We present an augmented kinetic scheme and then employ methods of stochastic simulation algorithm to obtain time dependent concentrations of different substances involved in the reaction and their rates of formation. We obtain the rates of product formation and ATP hydrolysis for both correct and wrong substrates (isoleucine and valine in our case, respectively), in single molecular enzyme as well as ensemble enzyme kinetics. The present theoretical scheme correctly reproduces (i) the amplitude of the discrimination factor in the overall rates between isoleucine and valine which is obtained as (1.8×10(2)).(4.33×10(2)) = 7.8×10(4), (ii) the rates of ATP hydrolysis for both Ile and Val at different substrate concentrations in the aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile). The present study shows a non-michaelis type dependence of rate of reaction on tRNA(Ile) concentration in case of valine. The overall editing in steady state is found to be independent of amino acid concentration. Interestingly, the computed ATP hydrolysis rate for valine at high substrate concentration is same as the rate of formation of Ile-tRNA(Ile) whereas at intermediate substrate concentration the ATP hydrolysis rate is relatively low. We find that the presence of additional editing domain in class I editing enzyme makes the kinetic proofreading more efficient through enhanced hydrolysis of wrong product at the editing CP1 domain.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66112. · 3.73 Impact Factor


Available from

Anjali P Mascarenhas