Postoperative bleeding in cardiac surgery: the role of tranexamic acid in patients homozygous for the 5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene.
ABSTRACT Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) attenuates the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene are associated with varying PAI-1 levels and risk of prothrombotic events in nonsurgical patients. The purpose of this study, a secondary analysis of a clinical trial, was to investigate whether PAI-1 genotype affects the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing postoperative chest tube blood loss of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.
Fifty patients were classified according to PAI-1 genotype (4G/4G, 4G/5G, or 5G/5G). Twenty-four received 2 g TA before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas 26 received placebo. The authors recorded data related to coagulation, fibrinolysis, and bleeding before surgery, at admission to the intensive care unit (0 h), and 4 and 24 h later.
In patients not receiving TA, those with the 5G/5G genotype had significantly higher chest tube blood loss and transfusion requirements compared with patients with the other genotypes at all time points. Patients with the 5G/5G genotype receiving TA showed significantly lower blood loss compared with the placebo group. There were no significant differences in blood loss or transfusion requirements between patients with the 4G/4G genotype when TA was used.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 5G/5G homozygotes who did not receive TA showed significantly greater postoperative bleeding than patients with other PAI-1 genotypes. 5G/5G homozygotes who received TA showed the greatest blood-sparing benefit.
- SourceAvailable from: John BoylanAnesthesiology 08/2002; 97(1):215-52. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the association between massive perioperative blood loss (MBL) and adverse outcomes is well recognized, it is unclear whether MBL is an independent risk factor or, instead, simply a marker for other adverse events or severity of illness. The objective of this cohort study was to quantify the independent association of MBL in cardiac surgery with all-cause in-hospital mortality. Data were prospectively collected on consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at a quaternary-care academic center from 1999 to 2003. The number of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused within 1 day of surgery was used as a surrogate measure of perioperative blood loss. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses were employed to identify the most appropriate cutoff for defining MBL. The independent association of MBL with mortality was determined with multivariable logistic regression analyses. Bootstrapping and sensitivity analyses were used to confirm the validity of the results. MBL was defined as receiving at least 5 units of RBCs within 1 day of surgery. Of 9215 patients analyzed, 1.8 percent (n = 169) died and 9.7 percent (n = 890) had MBL. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders (including perioperative adverse events), MBL was associated with an 8.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 3.9-17.0) increase in the odds of death. This risk estimate was stable across different modeling conditions as well as in bootstrap sampling. MBL after cardiac surgery has a strong, independent association with in-hospital mortality.Transfusion 11/2004; 44(10):1453-62. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aprotinin has been shown to be effective in reducing peri-operative blood loss and the need for re-operation due to continued bleeding in cardiac surgery. The lysine analogues tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) are cheaper, but it is not known if they are as effective as aprotinin. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies of published articles. Data from head-to-head trials were pooled using a conventional (Cochrane) meta-analytic approach and a Bayesian approach which estimated the posterior probability of TXA and EACA being equivalent to aprotinin; we used as a non-inferiority boundary a 20% increase in the rates of transfusion or re-operation because of bleeding. Peri-operative blood loss was significantly greater with TXA and EACA than with aprotinin: weighted mean differences were 106 mls (95% CI 37 to 227 mls) and 185 mls (95% CI 134 to 235 mls) respectively. The pooled relative risks (RR) of receiving an allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion with TXA and EACA, compared with aprotinin, were 1.08 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.32) and 1.14 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.55) respectively. The equivalent Bayesian posterior mean relative risks were 1.15 (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI] 0.90 to 1.68) and 1.21 (95% BCI 0.79 to 1.82) respectively. For transfusion, using a 20% non-inferiority boundary, the posterior probabilities of TXA and EACA being non-inferior to aprotinin were 0.82 and 0.76 respectively. For re-operation the Cochrane RR for TXA vs. aprotinin was 0.98 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.88), compared with a posterior mean Bayesian RR of 0.63 (95% BCI 0.16 to 1.46). The posterior probability of TXA being non-inferior to aprotinin was 0.92, but this was sensitive to the inclusion of one small trial. The available data are conflicting regarding the equivalence of lysine analogues and aprotinin in reducing peri-operative bleeding, transfusion and the need for re-operation. Decisions are sensitive to the choice of clinical outcome and non-inferiority boundary. The data are an uncertain basis for replacing aprotinin with the cheaper lysine analogues in clinical practice. Progress has been hampered by small trials and failure to study clinically relevant outcomes.BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 02/2005; 5:19. · 1.46 Impact Factor