Integrin connections to the cytoskeleton through talin and vinculin.
ABSTRACT Integrins are alphabeta heterodimeric receptors that mediate attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix and therefore play important roles in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Among the cytoskeletal proteins that interact directly with the beta-chain cytoplasmic domain, talin has emerged as playing a critical role in integrin activation and linkage to the actin cytoskeleton. Talin (2541 amino acids) is an elongated (60 nm) flexible antiparallel dimer, with a small globular head connected to an extended rod. The talin head contains a FERM (4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin) domain (residues 86-400) with binding sites for several beta integrin cytodomains and the talin rod contains a second lower-affinity integrin-binding site, a highly conserved C-terminal actin-binding site and also several binding sites for vinculin. We have determined previously the crystal structures of two domains from the talin rod, spanning residues 482-789. Talin-(482-655), which contains a VBS (vinculin-binding site), folds into a five-helix bundle whereas talin-(656-789) is a four-helix bundle. We have also reported the crystal structure of the N-terminal vinculin head domain in complex with an activated form of talin. In the present paper, we consider how binding sites buried within the folded helical bundles of talin and alpha-actinin form interactions with vinculin.
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ABSTRACT: During an infection, neutrophils are the first immune cells to arrive armed to clear the invading pathogen. In order to do so, neutrophils need to transmigrate from the peripheral blood through the endothelial layer toward the site of inflammation. This process is in most cases dependent on integrins, adhesion molecules present on all immune cells. These molecules are functionally regulated by "inside-out" signaling, where stimulus-induced signaling pathways act on the intracellular integrin tail to regulate the activity of the receptor on the outside. Both a change in conformation (affinity) and clustering (avidity/valency) of the receptors occurs and many factors have been linked to regulation of integrins on neutrophils. Control of integrin conformation and clustering is of pivotal importance for proper cell adhesion, migration, and bacterial clearance. Recently, gelsolin was found to be involved in β 1-integrin affinity regulation and cell adhesion. Here, I summarize the role of neutrophil integrin regulation in the essential steps to reach the site of inflammation and clearance of bacterial pathogens.Cell adhesion & migration 12/2013; 7(6). · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BNIP3 is an atypical BH3-only member of the BCL-2 family of proteins with reported pro-death as well as pro-autophagic and cytoprotective functions, depending on the type of stress and cellular context. In line with this, the role of BNIP3 in cancer is highly controversial and increased BNIP3 levels in cancer patients have been linked with both good as well as poor prognosis. In this study, using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral transduction to stably knockdown BNIP3 (BNIP3-shRNA) expression levels in melanoma cells, we show that BNIP3 supports cancer cell survival and long-term clonogenic growth. Although BNIP3-shRNA increased mitochondrial mass and baseline levels of reactive oxygen species production, which are features associated with aggressive cancer cell behavior, it also prevented cell migration and completely abolished the ability to form a tubular-like network on matrigel, a hallmark of vasculogenic mimicry (VM). We found that this attenuated aggressive behavior of these melanoma cells was underscored by severe changes in cell morphology and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton associated with loss of BNIP3. Indeed, BNIP3-silenced melanoma cells displayed enhanced formation of actin stress fibers and membrane ruffles, while lamellopodial protrusions and filopodia, tight junctions and adherens junctions were reduced. Moreover, loss of BNIP3 resulted in re-organization of focal adhesion sites associated with increased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase. Remarkably, BNIP3 silencing led to a drop of the protein levels of the integrin-associated protein CD47 and its downstream signaling effectors Rac1 and Cdc42. These observations underscore that BNIP3 is required to maintain steady-state levels of intracellular complexes orchestrating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton, which is integral to cell migration and other vital processes stimulating cancer progression. All together these results unveil an unprecedented pro-tumorigenic role of BNIP3 driving melanoma cell's aggressive features, like migration and VM.Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1127. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify plasma protein biomarkers for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using a large-scale quantitative proteomic discovery procedure. Methods: Plasma proteomes from 20 exudative AMD patients and 20 healthy control patients were comparatively profiled by 4-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins existing at statistically different levels were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting in 233 case-controlled samples. Newly discovered plasma biomarkers were further confirmed using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Results: Out of 320 proteins identified, vinculin, protein S100A9, triosephosphateisomerase, protein S100A8, protein z-dependent protease inhibitor, C-X-C motif chemokine 7, and tenascin X showed significantly differential expression in AMD patient plasma compared to control plasma. Among them, the AUC for vinculin was 0.871 for discriminating between exudative AMD and controls (N = 201) and 0.879 for discriminating between AMD and controls (N = 233). A proteo-genomic combination model using vinculin and two known risk genotypes in ARMS2 and CFH genes additionally provided excellent discrimination of AMD from controls (AUC = 0.916). The plasma level of vinculin was not associated with any confounding clinical variables, such as age, smoking, and other comorbidities. Additionally, vinculin was strongly expressed in retinal pigment epithelial cells of human eyes, and its expression was elevated when exposed to oxidative stress in vitro. Conclusions: Vinculin was identified as a potential plasma biomarker for AMD. The early detection of AMD using novel plasma biomarkers with genetic modeling may enable timely treatment and vision preservation in the elderly.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 10/2014;